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1210.1 Piping Underground
Underground gas piping shall be installed with sufficient clearance from any other underground structure to avoid contact therewith, to allow maintenance, and to protect against damage from proximity to other structures. In addition, underground plastic piping shall be installed with sufficient clearance or shall be insulated from any source of heat so as to prevent the heat from impairing the serviceability of the pipe. [NFPA 54:7.1.1]
1210.1.1 Cover Requirements
Underground piping systems shall be installed with a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) of cover. The minimum cover shall be increased to 18 inches (457 mm) if external damage to the pipe or tubing from external forces is likely to result. Where a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) of cover cannot be provided, the pipe shall be installed in conduit or bridged (shielded). [NFPA 54:7.1.2.1 — 7.1.2.1(B)]
1210.1.2 Trenches
The trench shall be graded so that the pipe has a firm, substantially continuous bearing on the bottom of the trench. [NFPA 54:7.1.2.2]
1210.1.2.1 Backfilling
Where flooding of the trench is done to consolidate the backfill, care shall be exercised to see that the pipe is not floated from its firm bearing on the trench bottom. [NFPA 54:7.1.2.3]
1210.1.3 Protection Against Corrosion
Steel pipe and steel tubing installed underground shall be installed in accordance with Section 1210.1.3.1 through Section 1210.1.3.9. [NFPA 54:7.1.3]
1210.1.3.1 Zinc Coating
Zinc coating (galvanizing) shall not be deemed adequate protection for underground gas piping. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.1]
1210.1.3.2 Underground Piping
Underground piping shall comply with one or more of the following unless approved technical justification is provided to demonstrate that protection is unnecessary:
  1. The piping shall be made of corrosion-resistant material that is suitable for the environment in which it will be installed.
  2. Pipe shall have a factory-applied, electrically insulating coating. Fittings and joints between sections of coated pipe shall be coated in accordance with the coating manufacturer's instructions.
  3. The piping shall have a cathodic protection system installed, and the system shall be maintained in accordance with Section 1210.1.3.3 or Section 1210.1.3.6. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.2]
1210.1.3.3 Cathodic Protection
Cathodic protection systems shall be monitored by testing and the results shall be documented. The test results shall demonstrate one of the following:
  1. A pipe-to-soil voltage of —0.85 volts or more negative is produced, with reference to a saturated copper-copper sulfate half cell.
  2. A pipe-to-soil voltage of —0.78 volts or more negative is produced, with reference to a saturated KC1 calomel half cell.
  3. A pipe-to-soil voltage of —0.80 volts or more negative is produced, with reference to a silver-silver chloride half cell.
  4. Compliance with a method described in Appendix D of Title 49 of the code of Federal Regulations, Part 192. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.3]
1210.1.3.4 Sacrificial Anodes
Sacrificial anodes shall be tested in accordance with the following:
  1. Upon installation of the cathodic protection system, except where prohibited by climatic conditions, in which case the testing shall be performed not later than 180 days after the installation of the system.
  2. 12 to 18 months after the initial test.
  3. Upon successful verification testing in accordance with Section 1210.1.3.4(1) and Section 1210.1.3.4(2), periodic follow-up testing shall be performed at intervals not to exceed 36 months. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.4]
1210.1.3.5 System Failing Tests
Systems failing a test shall be repaired not more than 180 days after the date of the failed testing. The testing schedule shall be restarted as required in Section 1210.1.3.4(1) and Section 1210.1.3.4(2), and the results shall comply with Section 1210.1.3.3. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.5]
1210.1.3.6 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection
Impressed current cathodic protection systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the following schedule:
  1. The impressed current rectifier voltage output shall be checked at intervals not exceeding two months.
  2. The pipe-to-soil voltage shall be tested at least annually. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.6]
1210.1.3.7 Documentation
Documentation of the results of the two most recent tests shall be retained. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.7]
1210.1.3.8 Dissimilar Metals
Where dissimilar metals are joined underground, an insulating coupling or fitting shall be used. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.8]
1210.1.3.9 Steel Risers
Steel risers, other than anodeless risers, connected to plastic piping shall be cathodically protected by means of a welded anode. [NFPA 54:7.1.3.9]
1210.1.4 Protection Against Freezing
Where the formation of hydrates or ice is known to occur, piping shall be protected against freezing. [NFPA 54:7.1.4]
1210.1.5 Piping Through Foundation Wall
Underground piping, where installed through the outer foundation or basement wall of a building, shall be encased in a protective sleeve or protected by an approved device or method. The space between the gas piping and the sleeve and between the sleeve and the wall shall be sealed to prevent entry of gas and water. [NFPA 54:7.1.5]
1210.1.6 Piping Underground Beneath Buildings
Where gas piping is installed underground beneath buildings, the piping shall be either of the following:
  1. Encased in an approved conduit designed to withstand the imposed loads and installed in accordance with Section 1210.1.6.1 or Section 1210.1.6.2.
  2. A piping/encasement system listed for installation beneath buildings. [NFPA 54:7.1.6]
1210.1.6.1 Conduit With One End Terminating Outdoors
The conduit shall extend into an accessible portion of the building and, at the point where the conduit terminates in the building, the space between the conduit and the gas piping shall be sealed to prevent the possible entrance of any gas leakage. Where the end sealing is of a type that retains the full pressure of the pipe, the conduit shall be designed for the same pressure as the pipe. The conduit shall extend at least 4 inches (102 mm) outside the building, be vented outdoors above finished ground level, and be installed so as to prevent the entrance of water and insects. [NFPA 54:7.1.6.1]
1210.1.6.2 Conduit With Both Ends Terminating Indoors
Where the conduit originates and terminates within the same building, the conduit shall originate and terminate in an accessible portion of the building and shall not be sealed. [NFPA 54:7.1.6.2]
1210.1.7 Plastic Piping
Plastic piping shall be installed outdoors, underground only.
Exceptions:
  1. Plastic piping shall be permitted to terminate aboveground where an anodeless riser is used.
  2. Plastic piping shall be permitted to terminate with a wall head adapter aboveground in buildings, including basements, where the plastic piping is inserted in a piping material permitted for use in buildings. [NFPA 54:7.1.7.1]
1210.1.7.1 Connections Between Metallic and Plastic Piping
Connections made between metallic and plastic piping shall be made with fittings conforming to one of the following:
  1. ASTM D2513, Category I transition fittings
  2. ASTM F1973
  3. ASTM F2509 [NFPA 54:7.1.7.2]
1210.1.7.2 Tracer Wire
An electrically continuous corrosion-resistant tracer shall be buried with the plastic pipe to facilitate locating. The tracer shall be one of the following:
  1. A product specifically designed for that purpose.
  2. Insulated copper conductor not less than 14 AWG.
Where tracer wire is used, access shall be provided from aboveground, or one end of the tracer wire or tape shall be brought aboveground at a building wall or riser. [NFPA 54:7.1.7.3 — 7.1.7.3.2]
1210.2 CSST Piping Systems
CSST piping systems shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:7.1.8]
1210.3 Installation of Aboveground Piping
Piping installed aboveground shall be securely supported and located where it will be protected from physical damage. Where passing through an exterior wall, the piping shall also be protected from corrosion by coating or wrapping with an inert material approved for such applications. The piping shall be sealed around its circumference at the point of the exterior penetration to prevent the entry of water, insects, and rodents. Where piping is encased in a protective pipe sleeve, the annular spaces between the gas piping and the sleeve and between the sleeve and the wall opening shall be sealed. [NFPA 54:7.2.1]
1210.3.1 Protective Coating
Where piping is in contact with a material or an atmosphere corrosive to the piping system, the piping and fittings shall be coated with a corrosion-resistant material. Any such coating used on piping or components shall not be considered as adding strength to the system. [NFPA 54:7.2.2]
1210.3.2 Building Structure
The installation of gas piping shall not cause structural stresses within building components to exceed allowable design limits. Approval shall be obtained before any beams or joists are cut or notched. [NFPA 54:7.2.3.1 — 7.2.3.2]
1210.3.3 Gas Piping to Be Sloped
Piping for other than dry gas conditions shall be sloped not less than 1/4 inch in 15 feet (6.4 mm in 4.6 m) to prevent traps. [NFPA 54:7.2.4]
1210.3.3.1 Ceiling Locations
Gas piping shall be permitted to be installed in accessible spaces between a fixed ceiling and a dropped ceiling, whether or not such spaces are used as a plenum. Valves shall not be located in such spaces.
Exception: Appliance or equipment shutoff valves required by this code shall be permitted to be installed in accessible spaces containing vented appliances.
1210.3.4 Prohibited Locations
Gas piping inside any building shall not be installed in or through a clothes chute, chimney or gas vent, dumbwaiter, elevator shaft, or air duct, other than combustion air ducts. [NFPA 54:7.2.5]
Exception: Ducts used to provide ventilation air in accordance with Section 506.0 or to above-ceiling spaces in accordance with Section 1210.3.3.1.
1210.3.5 Hangers, Supports, and Anchors
Piping shall be supported with metal pipe hooks, metal pipe straps, metal bands, metal brackets, metal hangers, or building structural components, suitable for the size of piping, of adequate strength and quality, and located at intervals so as to prevent or damp out excessive vibration. Piping shall be anchored to prevent undue strains on connected appliances and equipment and shall not be supported by other piping. Pipe hangers and supports shall conform to the requirements of MSS SP-58. [NFPA 54:7.2.6.1]
1210.3.5.1 Spacing
Spacing of supports in gas piping installations shall not be greater than shown in Table 1210.3.5.1. Spacing of supports of CSST shall be in accordance with the CSST manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:7.2.6.2]
TABLE 1210.3.5.1
SUPPORT OF PIPING
[NFPA 54: TABLE 72.6.2]
STEEL PIPE, NOMINAL SIZE OF PIPE
(inches)
SPACING OF SUPPORTS
(feet)
NOMINAL SIZE OF TUBING SMOOTH-WALL
(inches O.D.)
SPACING OF SUPPORTS
(feet)
1/2 6 1/2 4
3/4 or 1 8 5/8 or 3/4 6
11/4 or larger (horizontal) 10 7/8 or 1 (horizontal) 8
11/4 or larger (vertical) Every floor level 1 or larger (vertical) Every floor level
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
1210.3.5.2 Expansion and Contraction
Supports, hangers, and anchors shall be installed so as not to interfere with the free expansion and contraction of the piping between anchors. All parts of the supporting system shall be designed and installed so they are not disengaged by movement of the supported piping. [NFPA 54:7.2.6.3]
1210.3.5.3 Piping on Roof Tops
Gas piping installed on the roof surfaces shall be elevated above the roof surface and shall be supported in accordance with Table 1210.3.5.1. [NFPA 54:7.2.6.4]
1210.4 Concealed Piping in Buildings
Gas piping in concealed locations shall be installed in accordance with this section. [NFPA 54:7.3.1]
1210.4.1 Connections
Where gas piping is to be concealed, connections shall be of the following type:
  1. Pipe fittings such as elbows, tees, couplings, and right/left nipple/couplings.
  2. Joining tubing by brazing (see Section 1208.6.10.1).
  3. Press-connect fittings listed to CSA LC 4.
  4. CSST fittings listed to CSA LC 1.
  5. Where necessary to insert fittings in the gas pipe that has been installed in a concealed location, the pipe shall be reconnected by welding, flanges, or the use of a right/left nipple/coupling.
1210.4.2 Piping in Partitions
Concealed gas piping shall not be located in solid partitions. [NFPA 54:7.3.3]
1210.4.3 Tubing in Partitions
This provision shall not apply to tubing that pierces walls, floors, or partitions. Tubing installed vertically and horizontally inside hollow walls or partitions without protection along its entire concealed length shall meet the following requirements:
  1. A steel striker barrier not less than 0.0508 of an inch (1.3 mm) thick, or equivalent, is installed between the tubing and the finished wall and extends at least 4 inches (102 mm) beyond concealed penetrations of plates, firestops, wall studs, and so on.
  2. The tubing is installed in single runs and is not rigidly secured. [NFPA 54:7.3.4]
1210.4.4 Piping in Floors
In industrial occupancies, gas piping in solid floors such as concrete shall be laid in channels in the floor and covered to permit access to the piping with a minimum of damage to the building. Where piping in floor channels could be exposed to excessive moisture or corrosive substances, the piping shall be protected in an approved manner.
In other than industrial occupancies and where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, gas piping embedded in concrete floor slabs constructed with Portland cement shall be surrounded with a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) of concrete and shall not be in physical contact with other metallic structures such as reinforcing rods or electrically neutral conductors. All piping, fittings, and risers shall be protected against corrosion in accordance with Section 1210.3.1. Piping shall not be embedded in concrete slabs containing quick set additives or cinder aggregate. [NFPA 54:7.3.5.1 — 7.3.5.2]
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