Areas that have been determined to be prone to flooding and that are not subject to high-velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delineated as subject to wave heights between 11/2 feet (457 mm) and 3 feet (914 mm) or otherwise designated by the jurisdiction shall be designated as Coastal A Zones and are subject to the requirements of Section R322.3. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.2.1 through R322.2.3.
- Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas, including flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones, shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
- In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to a height above the highest adjacent grade of not less than the depth number specified in feet (mm) on the FIRM plus 1 foot (305 mm), or not less than 3 feet (915 mm) if a depth number is not specified.
- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the design flood elevation shall:
- Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.
- Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria and are installed in accordance with Section R3188.8.131.52:
- The total net area of non-engineered openings shall be not less than 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot (0.093 m2) of enclosed area where the enclosed area is measured on the exterior of the enclosure walls, or the openings shall be designed as engineered openings and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in Section 184.108.40.206 of ASCE 24.
- Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall.
- The presence of louvers, blades, screens and faceplates or other covers and devices shall allow the automatic flow of floodwater into and out of the enclosed areas and shall be accounted for in the determination of the net open area.
The walls of enclosed areas shall have openings installed such that:
- There shall be not less than two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings.
- The bottom of each opening shall be not more than 1 foot (305 mm) above the higher of the final interior grade or floor and the finished exterior grade immediately under each opening.
- Openings shall be permitted to be installed in doors and windows; doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.
Foundation walls for buildings and structures erected in flood hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4.
Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section R404:For the purpose of this exception, unsupported height is the distance from the finished grade of the under-floor space to the top of the wall.
- The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be not more than 3 feet (914 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be not more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
- The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be not more than 8 feet (2438 mm).
Underground tanks shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse and lateral movement under conditions of the base flood. Above-ground tanks shall be installed at or above the elevation required in Section R322.2.1 or shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse and lateral movement under conditions of the base flood.