Section 3108F Fire Prevention, Detection and Suppression
This section provides minimum standards for fire prevention, detection and suppression at MOTs. See Section 3101F.3 for definitions of "new" (N) and "existing" (E).
A fire hazard assessment and risk analysis shall be performed, considering the loss of commercial power, earthquake and other relevant events.
A site-specific Fire Protection Assessment shall be prepared by a registered engineer or a competent fire protection professional. The assessment shall consider the hazards and risks identified per Section 3108F.2.1 and shall include, but not be limited to, the elements of pre-fire planning as discussed in Section 9 of API RP 2001 [8.1] and Chapter 19 of ISGOTT [8.2]. MOT operational and training requirements, as related to fire protection, shall be considered (see 2 CCR 2385 [8.3]). The Fire Protection Assessment shall include goals, resources, organization, strategy and tactics, including the following:
- MOT characteristics (e.g., tanker/manifold, product pipelines, etc.)
- Product types and fire scenarios, including products not regulated by the Division that may impact development of fire scenarios
- Possible collateral fire damage to adjacent facilities
- Firefighting capabilities, including availability of water (flow rates and pressure), foam type and associated shelf life, proportioning equipment, and vehicular access
- The selection of appropriate extinguishing agents
- Calculation of water and foam capacities, as applicable, consistent with area coverage requirements
- Coordination of emergency efforts
- Emergency escape routes
- Requirements for fire drills, training of personnel, and the use of equipment
- Life safety
- Rescue for terminal and vessel personnel
- Cooling water for pipelines and valves exposed to the heat
- Contingency planning when supplemental fire support is not available. Mutual aid agreements can apply to water and land based support.
- Consideration of adverse conditions, such as electrical power failure, steam failure, fire pump failure, an earthquake or other damage to the fire water system.
The audit team shall review and field verify the firefighting equipment locations and condition to ensure operability.
Fire hazard classifications (Low, Medium or High) are defined in Table 31F-8-2, and are based on the cargo liquid volatility ratings and the sum of all stored and flowing volumes (VT), prior to the emergency shutdown (ESD) system stopping the flow of oil.
The stored (VS) volume is the sum of the HC and LC volumes (VSH and VSL, respectively).
During a leak, a quantity of oil is assumed to spill at the maximum cargo flow rate until the ESD is fully effective. The ESD valve closure time shall conform with 2 CCR 2380 [8.3]. The flowing volume (VF), calculated in Equation (1-1), is the sum of the HC and LC liquid volumes (VFH and VFL, respectively).
Protection from ignition by static electricity, lightning or stray currents shall be in accordance with API RP 2003 [8.4](N/E).
Requirements to prevent electrical arcing shall be in conformity with 2 CCR 2341 [8.3] (N/E).
Multi-berth terminal piers shall be constructed so as to provide a minimum of 100 ft between adjacent manifolds (N).
Emergency shutdown systems are essential to oil spill and fire prevention. These systems may include, but are not limited to, ESD valves, shore isolation valves (SIVs), automatic pump shutdown, controls, actuators and alarms. The ESD systems shall conform to 2 CCR 2380 [8.3] and 33 CFR 154.550 [8.5], and provide:
- Remote actuation stations strategically located, so that ESD valve(s) may be shut within required times (N).
- Multiple actuation stations installed at strategic locations, so that one such station is located more than 100 ft from areas classified as Class I, Group D, Division 1 or 2 per the California Electrical Code [8.6]. Actuation stations shall be wired in parallel to achieve redundancy and arranged so that fire damage to one station will not disable the ESD system (N).
- Communications or control circuits to synchronize simultaneous closure of the shore isolation valves (SIVs) with the shutdown of loading pumps (N).
- A manual reset to restore the ESD system to an operational state after each initiation (N).
- An alarm to indicate failure of the primary power source (N).
- A secondary (emergency) power source (N).
- Periodic testing of the system (N/E).
- Fire proofing of motors and control-cables that are installed in areas classified as Class I, Group D, Division 1 or 2 per the California Electrical Code [8.6]. Fire proofing shall, at a minimum, comply with the recommendations in Section 6 of API RP 2218 [8.7] (N).
|Low (LC)||Flash Point1 ≥ 140°F||ISGOTT (Chapter 1), [8.2] —Nonvolatile||#6 Heavy Fuel Oil, residuals, bunker|
|High (HC)||Flash Point1 < 140°F||ISGOTT (Chapter 1), [8.2] —Volatile||Gasoline, JP4, crude oils|
- Flash Point is defined per ISGOTT [8.2].
|CLASS||STORED VOLUME (bbls)||FLOWING VOLUME (bbls)||CRITERIA (bbls)*|
|LOW||y||n||n||y||y||VFL ≥ VFH, and VT ≤ 1200|
|LOW||n||y||n||y||n||VSL + VFL ≤ 1200|
|MEDIUM||n||n||y||n||y||VSH + VFH ≤ 1200|
|MEDIUM||y||n||n||y||y||VFH> VFL, and VT≤ 1200|
|HIGH||n||y||n||y||n||VSL + VFL > 1200|
|HIGH||n||n||y||n||y||VSH + VFH > 1200|
y = yes
n = no
Stripped = product purged from pipeline following product transfer event.
VSL = stored volume of low volatility product
VSH = stored volume of high volatility product
VFL = volume of low volatility product flowing through transfer line during ESD.
VFH = volume of high volatility product flowing through transfer line during ESD.
VT = VSL + VSH + VFL + VFH = Total Volume (stored and flowing)
* Quantities are based on maximum flow rate, including simultaneous transfers.
ESD valves shall conform to the requirements in Section 3109F.5, as applicable, and the following:
- Be located near the dock manifold connection or loading arm (N/E).
- Have "Local" and "Remote" actuation capabilities (N).
Shore isolation valve(s) shall conform to the requirements in Section 3109F.5, as applicable, and the following:
- Be located onshore for each cargo pipeline. All SIVs shall be clustered together, for easy access (N).
- Be clearly identified together with associated pipeline (N/E).
- Have adequate lighting (N/E).
- Be provided with communications or control circuits to synchronize simultaneous closure of the ESD system with the shutdown of loading pumps (N).
- Have a manual reset to restore the SIV system to an operational state after each shut down event (N).
- Be provided with thermal expansion relief to accommodate expansion of the liquid when closed. Thermal relief piping shall be properly sized and routed around the SIV, into the downstream segment of the pipeline or into other containment (N/E).
- SIVs installed in pipelines carrying HC liquids, or at a MOT with a spill classification "Medium" or "High" (see Table 31F-1-1), shall be equipped with "Local" and "Remote" actuation capabilities. Local control SIVs may be motorized and/or operated manually (N).
An MOT shall have a permanently installed automated fire detection or sensing system (N).
Fire detection systems shall be tested and maintained per the manufacturer or the local enforcing agency requirements.
Specifications shall be retained. The latest testing and maintenance records shall be readily accessible to the Division (N/E).
Automatic and manual fire alarms shall be provided at strategic locations. The fire alarm system shall be arranged to provide a visual and audible alarm that can be readily discerned by all personnel at the MOT and vessel personnel involved in the transfer operations. Additionally, visual and audible alarms shall be displayed at the MOT's control center (N/E).
If the fire alarm system is integrated with the ESD system, the operation shall be coordinated with the closure of SIVs, block valves and pumps to avoid adverse hydraulic conditions (N/E).
Fire alarms shall be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72 [8.8] or the local enforcing agency requirements. Specifications shall be retained. The latest testing and maintenance records shall be readily accessible to the Division (N/E).
|FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION (From Table 31F-8-2)||VESSEL AND CARGO LIQUID VOLATLITYRATING (From Table 31F-8-1)||MINIMUM PROVISIONS|
|LOW||Barge with LC (including drums)||500 gpm of water |
2 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 2 × 110 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.
|Barge with HC (including drums) |
Tankers < 50 KDWT, handling LC or HC
|1,500 gpm of water |
2 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 2 × 165 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent
|MEDIUM||Tankers < 50 KDWT handling LC||1,500 gpm of water |
2 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 2 × 165 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.
|Tankers < 50 KDWT, handling HC||2,000 gpm of water |
4 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 2 × 165 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.
|HIGH||Tankers < 50 KDWT, handling LC or HC||3,000 gpm of water |
4 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 2 × 165 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.
|LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH||Tankers > 50 KDWT, handling LC or HC||3,000 gpm of water |
6 x 20 lb portable dry chemical and 4 × 165 lb wheeled dry chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.
Notes: LCand HC are defined in Table 31F-8-1. KDWT = Dead Weight Tons (Thousands)
The fire suppression system shall provide coverage for:
- Marine structures including the pier/wharf and approach trestle
- Terminal cargo manifold
- Cargo transfer system including loading arms, hoses and hose racks
- Vessel manifold
- Control stations
Hydrants shall be located not greater than 150 ft apart, along the wharf and not more than 300 ft apart on the approach trestle [8.2] (N).
Additional hose connections shall be provided at the base of fixed monitors and upstream of the water and foam isolation valves. Connections shall be accessible to fire trucks or mutual aid equipment as identified in the Fire Protection Assessment (N/E).
Hydrants and hoses shall be capable of applying two independent water streams covering the cargo manifold, transfer system, sumps and vessel manifold (N/E).
The source of fire water shall be reliable and provide sufficient capacity as determined in the Fire Protection Assessment. Water-based fire protection systems shall be tested and maintained per California NFPA 25 [8.9], as adopted and amended by the State Fire Marshal, or the local enforcing agency requirements. Specifications shall be retained. The latest testing and maintenance records shall be readily accessible to the Division (N/E).
- All wet systems shall be kept pressurized (jockey pump or other means) (N/E).
- Wet system headers shall be equipped with a low-pressure alarm wired to the control room (N).
- Fire pumps shall be installed at a distance of at least 100 ft from the nearest cargo manifold area (N).
- Hose connections for fireboats or tugboats shall be provided on the MOT fire water line, and at least one connection shall be an international shore fire connection at each berth [8.2]. Connections shall be installed at a safe access distance from the sumps, manifolds and loading arms (N/E).
Product flammability, foam type, water flow rates and application duration shall be considered in foam supply calculations.
Fixed foam proportioning equipment shall be located at a distance of at least 100 ft from the sumps, manifolds and loading arms, except where hydraulic limits of the foam delivery system require closer proximity.
MOTs shall have a program to ensure that foam is replaced according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
Fire monitors shall be located to provide coverage of MOT cargo manifolds, loading arms, hoses, and vessel manifold areas. This coverage shall provide at least two independent streams of water/foam. Monitors shall be located to provide an unobstructed path between the monitor and the target area (N/E).
If the vessel manifold is more than 30 ft above the wharf deck, the following factors shall be considered, in order to determine if monitors located on elevated masts or towers are required (N/E):
- Maximum tanker freeboard
- Tidal variations
- Pier/wharf/loading platform elevation
- Fire water line pressure
Sprinklers and/or remotely controlled water/foam monitors shall be installed to protect personnel, escape routes, shelter locations and the fire water system (N).
Isolation valves shall be installed in the fire water and the foam lines in order to segregate damaged sections without disabling the entire system. Readily accessible isolation valves shall be installed 100—150 ft from the manifold and the loading arm/hose area (N).
A supplemental system is an external waterborne or land-based source providing suppressant and equipment. Supplemental systems may not provide more than one-quarter of the total water requirements specified in the Fire Protection Assessment.
Additionally, supplementary systems shall not be considered in a Fire Protection Assessment, unless available within 20 minutes following the initiation of a fire alarm. Mutual aid may be considered as part of the supplemental system.