// CODE SNIPPET
§10-03 Fire Extinguishing Appliances — Standpipe and Fireline.*
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(a) Plans. A preliminary set of paper plans and cross section drawn clearly and distinctly to a scale of 1/4-inch or by permission of the Fire Commissioner 1/8-inch to the foot, for each proposed standpipe (fireline) installation or alteration, shall be submitted to and approved by the Fire Commissioner before the work in connection with the installation is started. Such plans shall show the size and location of the standpipe (fireline) risers, size and location of siamese and cross-connections, valves, tanks and connections, pumps, hose stations, lengths of hose, etc., and the location of stairways and enclosing partitions in relation to the standpipe risers and hose stations. Upon approval of preliminary plans such number of sets of clean, corrected plans on cloth as the Fire Commissioner may require, not exceeding three (3) shall be filed for final approval by the Fire Commissioner. A certified copy of approved plans shall be forwarded to the Department of Buildings by the Bureau of Fire Prevention. Such application and specification forms as may be prescribed by the Fire Commissioner shall accompany preliminary plans. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided throughout the building or in any portion of the building, the plans shall include a note to this effect.
(b) Approval. Before acceptance all standpipe (firelines) shall be tested for at least one-half hour in the presence of a representative of the Bureau of Fire Prevention to a pressure of at least 300 pounds per square inch at the street level, or such additional pressures as may be required to give 100 pounds at the highest hose outlet, except that when a change is made in a source of supply, or minor changes are made in an existing equipment previously approved, the system be tested to a pressure sufficient to give 50 lbs. per sq. in. at the highest story hose outlet. No valves, risers, or other material portions of any standpipe (fireline) equipment shall be covered in or permanently concealed until tested and approved, in writing, by the Bureau of Fire Prevention. Modified standpipe equipment installed as per General Resolution, Cal. 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals shall not be required to stand a pressure test in excess of 100 pounds per square inch. When entirely completed in accordance with the approved plans, and as per test herein provided for, application shall be made to the Bureau of Fire Prevention for inspection of the completed installation. When the standpipe equipment is approved, the applicant will be so advised in writing by the Bureau of Fire Prevention. When deemed necessary by the Fire Commissioner, diagrams of the standpipe fireline equipment in buildings of large area or height, not more than three in number and printed on cloth in size 8 1/2 in. × 11 in., shall be filed by the applicant for the use of the fire companies in the district in which the premises are located.
(c) Monthly inspection. All valves, hose, tools and other auxiliary fire appliances shall be kept in perfect working order, and at least once a month the person in charge of the building shall make a thorough inspection of the same to see that all the fire appliances are in perfect working order and ready for immediate use by the Fire Department. He shall also instruct all employees under his charge in the use and practice of all auxiliary fire appliances. A detailed record of each inspection shall be kept on the premises for examination by a representative of the Fire Department.
(d) Approved devices. All devices approved for use in standpipe fireline equipment shall bear the manufacturer's name and the date of and the number of the approval. Certified copies of the approval, working drawings and photographs of the device approved, shall be submitted to the administrative authority having jurisdiction for preservation as records and reference data.
(e) Elevator in readiness. In every building exceeding 150 feet in height at least one passenger elevator shall be kept in readiness for immediate use by the Fire Department during all hours of the night and day, including holidays and Sundays, and a competent man to operate the elevator shall be present at all times.
(f) Area of building. For the application of Chapter 5 of § 581 of the Code of Ordinances, and of Cal. 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals, the area of the building shall be taken as the area within the exterior walls or the area between fire walls constructed as, and with areas protected as, per § 371 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, provided that fire walls extend throughout the entire height of the building, and provided further that the combined areas of the floor areas on either side of the wall do not exceed 15,000 sq. ft. and that no area on either side of fire wall exceeds 10,000 sq. ft.
(g) Height. The term "height" as applied to a building or structure, means the vertical distance measured in a straight line from the curb level, to the highest point of the roof beams in the case of flat roofs, and to the average height of gable in case of roofs having a pitch of more than 20 degrees with a horizontal plane.
(h) Standpipe equipment. Standpipe equipment shall consist of a system of piping connected to one or more approved sources of water supply and provided with sufficient number of hose outlets and hose located as hereinafter set forth, to make possible the covering of every portion of each floor area with a standpipe hose stream, except that where the 1st story or basement or both are occupied as stores without connection or communication with the entrance hall or stair enclosure to upper stories the Fire Commissioner may permit the omission of standpipe protection in such stores and, if so omitted, may prescribe such portable protection as he may deem necessary. Cellars, sub-cellars, basements, etc., shall be protected in the same manner as the stories above grade. Every standpipe (fireline) equipment shall be a Standard Wet System, except as hereinafter provided for:
(1) In any building not exceeding 40 feet in height and 20,000 sq. ft. in area, a four-inch street supply system having one four (4) inch direct connection to a street main fed two ways or having one 4-in. direct connection to each of the two street mains on two street fronts, each main so fed that the shutting off of one main will not interfere with the supply of the other main, may be installed, provided there is sufficient pressure in the street main or mains to maintain a minimum of twenty-five (25) pounds per square inch static pressure at the highest hose outlet. Evidence establishing the fact that water main conditions and pressures are as required shall be submitted to the Fire Department.
(2) In buildings as specified in General Resolution, Cal. 179-20-S, of the Board of Standards and Appeals, in which modified systems shall be accepted.
(3) The installation of a pressure tank system, instead of a Standard Wet System, may be permitted by the Fire Commissioner when, in his opinion, the efficiency of the system will be not less than that of a Standard Wet System.
(i) Classification of standpipe fireline equipment. For the purpose of these rules standpipe equipment shall be classified as:
(1) Standard Wet System in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, and in which the system is at all times filled with water from at least one standard source of supply.
(2) Four-inch street connection system, in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances and the system is at all times filled with water from one or more 4-in. diameter direct connections to public water mains in the street.
(3) Automatic dry systems, in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, and are normally dry, the system being connected to a source of water supply controlled by an automatic dry pipe valve as defined elsewhere in these rules.
(4) Modified systems, in which the piping is 2 1/2 inches in diameter and supplied from a street main through a tap of at least 2 in. in diameter, as per General Resolution 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals.
(5) Pressure tank system, which will be similar to a standard wet system except that primary supply of water shall be obtained from a pressure tank as defined elsewhere in these rules.
(j) Tanks above roof. Construction shall be as per § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances and tank structure and supports shall be approved by the Buildings Superintendent. The covers of all unenclosed standpipe tanks shall be conical in shape and protected with a type of roofing approved by the Buildings Superintendent.
(k) Reserve for standpipe. Gravity tanks, intermediate tanks and pressure tanks shall contain not less than 3,500 gallons of water at all times, reserved solely for standpipe firelines purposes. When a gravity tank is to be used for both standpipe and house supply, the connection for the latter shall be made through the side of the tank above the level of the required standpipe reserve. Standpipe and sprinkler supplies may not be taken from one tank. Mercantile or Industrial Buildings in Group under the same ownership and operation: One gravity tank of sufficient water capacity to supply the largest unit of a group of separate and distinct buildings operating under one ownership, and located at such elevation that the bottom of the tank will be at least 20 feet above the roof of the highest building of the group, will be accepted as an adequate tank supply for the entire standpipe equipment, provided a dead riser is carried down from the bottom of the tank to an underground header system having a Post Indicator control valve for each building unit, the P.I. Valves to be located as the Fire Commissioner may direct. All underground piping shall be extra heavy cast iron. When in his opinion, the area covered is excessive or the occupancy is such that an unusual fire hazard is introduced, the Fire Commissioner may require additional protection in the nature of additional tank or tanks located remote from any other standpipe tank, or additional water supply in the main gravity tank, or a fire pump and suction tank of size and capacity to be determined by the Fire Commissioner or the Board of Standards and Appeals, or a combination of any of the foregoing supplies.
(l) Standard source of supply. Gravity tank located so that the bottom of same will be not less than 20 feet above the roof level and of a capacity as stated elsewhere in these rules and direct connected to the standpipe equipment by pipes of the same diameter as that of the largest riser. Tanks may not be fed through the standpipe fireline, but shall be fed through a separate line at least 2 inches in diameter, discharging into the top of the tank above the overflow level through the side or through the bottom, that portion of the pipe within the tank to be of brass or bronze. An electric or steam pump of sufficient capacity to deliver 65 gallons of water per minute at the tank shall be provided, or if the pressure in the service line is sufficient and the plumbing is such that a minimum of 65 gallons of water per minute may be delivered to the tank, connection to the house water service main in the basement, cellar or lowest story may be used instead of pump. The sprinkler and standpipe tanks may be fed from a common source of supply, either a pump or a direct service main connection, when a ball (float) valve is provided for each tank. Floats shall be of copper.
Overflow. An overflow of diameter at least as large as that of the fill line shall be provided for each standpipe tank. It may be run through the bottom of the tank, provided it is of brass or bronze and has no joint inside of the tank, otherwise it must be brought through the side of the tank, 3 inches below the top (of sides). Overflows shall terminate in a 90 degree elbow not more than 24 inches above the roof.
Emergency drain. There shall be provided for each tank an emergency drain not less than 4 inches in diameter connected directly to the bottom of the tank or to the standpipe supply line above the roof, and terminating not less than 30 inches nor more than 4 feet above the roof in a horizontal run. Emergency drain shall be provided with a 4-inch quick opening gate valve located in a readily accessible position not more than 4 feet above the roof.
Elevation of tank. The bottom of each gravity tank used for standpipe fireline supply shall be at least 20 feet above the level of the roof. When the area of a penthouse exceeds 50% of the roof area or when it exceeds an area of 2500 sq. ft., the bottom of the tank shall be required to be not less than 20 ft. above the level of the penthouse roof. In existing standpipe equipment the bottom of the gravity standpipe tank shall not be required to be more than 20 feet above the outlet in the highest story.
Access to tank. Access to the top of each standpipe tank shall be provided by means of an iron gooseneck ladder of substantial construction and rigid bracing.
(m) High and low alarm and flow tell tale. Every tank used for standpipe fireline purposes shall be provided with either an electric high and low water alarm as defined elsewhere in these rules or with a flow tell tale constructed as provided for elsewhere in these rules, in order that it may be determined at any time whether or not the required standpipe reserve is in the tank, except that where the house water supply is taken from the same tank as the standpipe supply and not from any other tank, neither a high and low alarm or a flow tell tale need be provided when an automatic tank filling pump is installed.
(n) Check valve. There shall be provided in a horizontal run of pipe below the main roof in the line connecting the standpipe tank with the standpipe riser an approved type swing check valve opening toward riser, except that where a siamese steamer connection has been omitted under these rules, no check valve shall be required. An O. S. & Y. gate valve shall be provided on each side of the check valve and shall be sealed open in an approved manner.
(o) Heating of tanks. All tanks used for standpipe supply purposes shall be heated by means of steam supplied through a brass coil with brass fittings and of a type and radiating surface as prescribed by the Board of Standards and Appeals. The heater shall be fed through a 1 1/4-inch steam line with a 1-inch return, separately trapped. The water in the tank shall be maintained at a temperature above 40 F., which condition, if obtained by a variation of the arrangement of coil as may be specified by the Board of Standards and Appeals, will be acceptable. Tanks supplying both standpipe and house service lines in hotels, hospitals and institutes using the tank supply seven days a week shall not require heating. If in an adequately heated enclosure, interior heating of tanks shall not be required.
(p) Suction tanks. Suction tanks shall be of at least 5000 gallons effective water capacity reserved for fire pump use exclusively and shall be constructed of steel or reinforced concrete, located in the cellar, or in the basement or lowest story if there is no cellar under the building. The Fire Commissioner may permit suction tanks to be located in a separate enclosure or building provided they are accessible and in his judgment such location will be more practicable. Suction tanks shall be fed by a connection at least 3 inches in diameter taken direct from the public street main. The supply shall enter the suction tank above the top or through the side near the top of the tank and shall be controlled by a bronze ball cock and copper float.
(q) Pressure tanks. Pressure tanks shall contain the quantities of water as specified for gravity tanks, but in no case may a tank have a capacity in excess of 9,000 gallons. Pressure tanks shall be located in the top story or penthouse and shall be properly protected against freezing. The tank shall be kept two-thirds full of water under a pressure of 30 lbs. per square inch and shall be so located and proportioned that a pressure of not less than 15 lbs. per square inch will be available at the hose outlet in the highest story. The air compressor shall be of sufficient capacity to increase the air pressure at an average of one pound in two minutes in each pressure tank. The connection to riser or risers, the emergency drain and the means of access to tank shall be as required for gravity tank in §10-03(l). Pressure and water level gauges shall be required. The means of supplying water shall be as required for gravity tanks except that filling must be done without reducing the pressure in the tank.
(r) Support for tanks. Tanks of more than 500 gallons capacity hereafter placed in or on any building shall be supported on masonry, reinforced concrete or steel construction of sufficient strength and carried to a proper foundation as provided for in § 428 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances.
(s) Intermediate tanks. The location of intermediate tanks shall be as directed by the Fire Commissioner and as prescribed elsewhere in these rules and each such tank shall have at least 3,500 gallons of water reserved exclusively for fire line purposes. The bottom of each tank shall be at least 20 feet above the floor level of the story next above the highest outlet supplied therefrom. The method of water supply to tanks, the overflow, the high and low water alarm, the emergency drain, etc., shall be as prescribed for tanks above the roof except that the overflow and emergency drain shall be direct connected to the drainage system of the building. The connection of the tank to the system shall be as hereinafter set forth: Piping of the same diameter as the riser shall connect the tank with the riser of the portion of equipment supplied from that tank and in this connecting line in a horizontal run there shall be placed an approved swing check valve opening downward, and two O. S. & Y. gate valves one at each side of the check valve. Each tank section shall be direct connected to the tank section above by means of piping of the same diameter as that of the largest riser and in this connecting line shall be provided an approved swing check valve opening upward, in order that water pumped into the siamese connection may enter the entire equipment of the building, and that each tank will supply only its portion of the system.
(t) Valves. All valves controlling standpipe water supply except valves at hose outlets shall be iron body brass mounted. Outside Stem & Yoke gate type.
(u) Piping. Materials of Construction: All new piping for standpipe firelines shall be of genuine full weight wrought iron or steel and properly tested by the manufacturer to 500 lbs. per square inch hydrostatic pressure. All pipes shall be lap welded. Where working pressures are in excess of 150 lbs. to the square inch extra heavy cast iron valves and fittings shall be used. The standard weight fittings and valves may be used where the pressure is not more than 150 lbs. per sq. inch. Fittings in horizontal runs shall have long turns. All underground piping shall be of extra heavy cast iron.
(v) Construction. Each standpipe fireline riser shall be supported at the bottom and in every other (alternate) story, and shall be properly braced. Horizontal lines shall be supported by heavy wrought iron hangers attached by straps or bars extending around and over floor beams at intervals of not more than 10 ft., and at more frequent intervals if deemed necessary by the Fire Commissioner and shall be securely braced to withstand vibration. Hangers may be supported by straps or bars extending over and around bars of at least 1 in. in diameter and 12 in. in length embedded in concrete floors parallel to and at least 2 in. from the undersurface or by approved malleable iron concrete inserts. The arrangement of lines must be straight and as direct as practicable. Offsets will be permitted only when unavoidable or where necessary to install horizontal check valves. Where standpipe lines are adjacent to or in close proximity to other pipes of 4 in. or larger diameter, the standpipe firelines shall be coated with red paint. Except where flange fittings and pipes are permitted elsewhere in this rule, all joints shall be screwed joints made up thoroughly water tight with red lead, litharge and glycerin, or compressed graphite lead and boiled linseed oil, or any joint compound that may be approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals. In horizontal runs of piping of standpipe fireline systems, if larger than 4 in. in diameter, fittings and valves may be of the flange type, provided flange races are machined true and smooth and do not show rings, and sand holes or other imperfections. All joints must be either ground or provided with corrugated copper gaskets. All standpipe (fireline) equipments must be installed in a workmanlike manner.
(w) Protection of risers. Standpipe risers when not located within stair enclosure shall be protected against interior fire damage by means of at least one inch asbestos covering, or a covering of expanded metal lath and three-quarters inch Portland cement plaster or by a 2 in. terra cotta block encasement. Standpipe lines shall be properly protected from freezing.
(x) Number of risers. Where standpipe fireline equipment is required there shall be at least one riser for each 10,000 sq. ft. of floor area in any story, basement or cellar. Each building fronting on more than one street shall have at least one riser for each street front. For the application of this subdivision (x) a corner building shall not be considered as facing on more than one street when it is on but one corner. In all cases regardless of area or location there shall be a sufficient number of risers, so that any portion of each floor area may be covered by the stream from a standpipe hose not exceeding 100 ft. in length, except in the case of hotels where portions of floor area most remote from the stairway are more than 100 ft. distant therefrom, when hose shall not be more than 125 ft. in length. Each standpipe riser must be located within a stair enclosure and one riser must be located in main stairway. Where impracticable to locate a riser within the stair enclosure, the Fire Commissioner may permit it located immediately adjacent to a stair enclosure. Not more than 10 feet will be allowed for the throw of hose stream, except where the static pressure at the hose outlet is 15 lbs. or more, when 20 ft. will be allowed. When there are two or more risers in a standpipe (fire line) equipment, all risers shall be cross-connected by piping of a diameter at least equal to the diameter of the largest riser, but in no case shall the cross-connection be less than five inches.
(y) Fire pumps. Where required: In every building exceeding 280 ft. in height, an electric or steam pump shall be kept in readiness for immediate use by the Fire Department during all hours of the night and day, including Sundays and holidays.
(z) Arrangement, location and supply of fire pumps. Fire pumps where required due to building height in excess of 280 ft., shall be connected to the standpipe systems and have a capacity of 750 gallons of water per minute at a pressure of 50 lbs. to the sq. inch at the hose outlet in the highest story. Fire pumps shall draw from steel or reinforced concrete suction tanks of at least 5,000 gallons water capacity. For the purpose of testing fire pumps a 4 in. diameter branch shall be taken from the discharge line at the pump side of the check valve and run to the suction tank over the side or through the side above the overflow level. From this branch there shall be taken a 4 in. line with an approved type pressure relief valve, extending to the tank in a manner similar to that of the 4 in. test line. In the 4 in. test line between the 4 in. relief branch and the tank there shall be placed an O. S. & Y. gate valve, which shall be kept closed except during a test of the fire pump. In the line from the fire pump to the standpipe risers and beyond the test branch there shall be placed an approved type check valve in a horizontal position and also an O. S. & Y. gate valve, the latter to be open except when the fire pump is undergoing test. A pressure gauge shall be provided and connected to the discharge line of the pump. In all standpipe equipment where the height of the building and the layout of the standpipe installation are such as to require a pressure exceeding 275 lbs. to the square inch to obtain at the highest story outlet a pressure of 50 lbs. per sq. inch, the Fire Commissioner shall prescribe such pump or additional pumps, and the location, supply, etc., of same, as he may deem necessary. The piping connecting discharge from the fire pumps shall be 4 in. in diameter in the case of systems with 4 in. risers and 6 in. in diameter where risers exceed 4 in. in diameter, and shall enter the standpipe system in the basement, or cellar, or if there is no basement or cellar, in the lowest story. All bearings of electric controls must be of rustless materials and springs must be of phosphor bronze or must be completely encased in filled oil cups.
(aa) Siamese connections for fire department use. Each standpipe system shall be provided with one or more approved type 3 inch × 3 inch inlet siamese connections for use by the Fire Department as hereinafter set forth. When a building faces on but one street and has a frontage of less than 250 ft. and requires but one four (4) inch diameter standpipe riser one siamese connection shall be provided; where the street frontage exceeds 200 ft. in length and requires but two four (4) inch diameter standpipe risers one siamese connection shall be provided for each 200 ft. of street frontage or fraction thereof. Buildings exceeding 250 ft. in height shall have not less than two siamese steam connections for each riser and buildings not more than 250 ft. in height shall have at least one siamese connection for each 6 inch riser. Buildings having frontages on more than one street shall have a siamese connection on each street front when the frontage is not continuous but in all cases where more than one siamese connection is required they shall be properly distributed as the Fire Commissioner may direct and not grouped. Any building, other than theatre with stage, not over 45 feet in height shall not be required to have a siamese connection except when such building is on a water front or when it is one of a group of buildings and has a cross-connection to the standpipe equipment in one or more of the other buildings. Each siamese connection placed on the street front of a building shall be located not less than 18 ins. and not more than 24 ins. above the sidewalk level and shall be set in a horizontal position and shall be readily accessible for Fire Department use. Each siamese shall have cast in the body on top in letters at least 1 in. in length and not less than 1/8 in. in depth, the word "standpipe." The piping connecting the siamese with the standpipe equipment proper shall be not less than 5 in. in diameter where there are two or more 4 in. risers and not less than 6 in. in diameter for risers of 6 and 8 in. diameter. When there is but one 4 in. riser, connection from siamese may be 4 in. In each line between the siamese connection and the standpipe system there shall be placed an approved type swing check valve and between the siamese and its check valve there shall be placed either a 1/2-in. open drip without valve or cock, extended to a sink or sump, insuring visible flow, or there shall be provided a 3/4-in. automatic ball drip of an approved type which will close under a pressure of not more than 7 lbs. per sq. inch.
(bb) Siamese connections for fire boat use. Siamese connection on piers or warehouses, etc., intended for fire boat use exclusively shall be 3 1/2 in. × 3 1/2 in. at inlets with Fire Department female thread. Between siamese and the system proper there shall be an approved type swing check valve, and between the check valve and the siamese either a 1/2-in. open drip without valve or cock, or a 3/4-in. automatic ball drip of approved type closing under a pressure of not more than 7 lbs. per sq. inch. Where systems have both fire boat and steamer siamese the steamer (land) siamese shall have male connections and shall be without clappers, but shall have on each inlet a 3 in. gate valve with Fire Department male thread for hose connection. Check valve shall not be provided for the land end siamese.
(cc) Hose outlets. When practicable all hose outlets shall be placed within a stair enclosure. They shall be 2 1/2 in. in diameter, set not less than 5 ft. nor more than 6 ft. above the floor or landing as the case may be. Outlets and racks shall be located above the floor or landing and shall not be over a run of stairs or in a stair well. When impracticable to place hose outlets within the stair enclosure, the Fire Commissioner may permit them to be located immediately adjacent to a stair enclosure, in a conspicuous place, in which case there shall be painted upon the stair side of the wall of the stair enclosure a conspicuous sign in letters not less than 8 in. in height and 5 in. in width indicating the location of the outlet. Where there is but one riser its termination above roof shall be a 2 1/2 in. outlet hose valve and where there is more than one riser the termination of every second riser shall be a 2 1/2 in. outlet hose valve. Roof outlets shall be located not less than 18 ins. nor more than 24 ins. above the roof and each valve shall be provided with a regulation 2 1/2 in. Fire Department cap. Where roof outlets cannot be located within a heated stair enclosure, the control valve shall be located below the roof and shall have a long stem extending above the roof with a wheel handle at the upper end. Between the long stem valve and the roof outlet there shall be a 1/2 in. open drip extending to a sink or a 3/4 in. automatic ball drip of approved type. The outlet above the roof shall have standard 2 1/2 in. Fire Department thread and a regulation cap. No branch line may be less than 4 in. in diameter, except that any branch from a riser or cross-connection to but one hose outlet may be 2 1/2 in. if not over four (4) feet in length, and may be 3 in. in diameter if not more than twenty-five (25) feet in length. In buildings not exceeding 40 ft. in height hose outlets above roof shall not be required. Each outlet other than roof outlet shall have attached thereto 2 1/2 in. unlined linen hose of lengths as stated elsewhere in these rules, except that in buildings or premises that do not contain occupancies storing, handling or using flammable motion picture films or nitro cellulose products, and which are not classified as hazardous, the Fire Commissioner may permit the installation of 1 1/2 in. unlined linen hose attached to each outlet by means of an approved type 2 1/2 in. × 1 1/2 in. coupling. A spanner wrench shall be provided at each hose outlet valve.
(dd) Nozzles. All 2 1/2 in. fire hose shall be provided with approved smooth bore nozzles 15 in. in length, the outlet at the tip to be not less than 1 in. nor more than 1 1/8 in. in diameter. All 1 1/2 in. fire hose shall be provided with approved smooth bore nozzles 12 ins. in length, the outlet at the tip to be not less than 1/2 in. nor more than 5/8 in. in diameter.
(ee) Hose. Hose shall be unlined linen. There may not be more than 100 ft. of hose at any outlet except in hotels, where 125 ft. of hose may be permitted at the discretion of the Fire Commissioner. No single section of hose may be more than 50 ft. in length except by special permission of the Fire Commissioner. The minimum length of hose that may be provided at any outlet shall be 25 ft. All hose used in connection with the standpipe fireline system shall be at least equal in material and construction to the type of hose bearing the approval label of the National Board of Fire Underwriters.
(ff) Couplings. Hose couplings for standpipe shall be equal to hose couplings of the regular Fire Department pattern and thread.
(gg) Racks. All standpipe hose shall be suspended from racks of stamped steel, malleable iron or other metal equal thereto, of approved swing type, so designed and constructed that they will permit of ready and easy release of hose for use. The racks shall be supported securely and substantially from standpipe risers or wall, except that where a cast nipple of non-corrosive material is screwed into the hose outlet valve the rack may be suspended from said nipple. The minimum thickness of nipple to be 5/16 in. In no case will automatic racks be permitted. Racks shall be not more than 6 feet above the floor.
(hh) Hose cabinets. Hose racks may be installed in cabinets, provided the cabinets are conspicuously located within a stair enclosure, and are of a size sufficient to accommodate the entire equipment and permit of easy handling of hose and operation of valve. In theatres cabinets may be permitted outside of stair enclosures, provided they are conspicuous, and that during performances the cabinets are illuminated by means of an electric lamp placed inside. Each cabinet shall have a clear glass door (one panel only) without lock and shall have the words "Fire Hose" painted on the glass in letters not less than 2 1/2 inches in height.
(ii) Regulation and reduction of pressures. The maximum pressure which will be permitted at any outlet is 80 lbs. per sq. inch. In buildings exceeding 300 ft. in height, one intermediate standpipe supply tank shall be provided for each 300 ft. of height or fraction thereof except that where the fraction does not exceed 50 ft. an additional intermediate tank need not be provided. Where pressure regulating or pressure reducing valves or outlet reducers are required, they shall be of a type approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals. Pressure regulating valves shall be set to deliver at 50 lbs. to the sq. inch at the outlet side and shall be placed in a by-pass around the check valve in the standpipe riser, so located that the pressure at any outlet will not exceed 80 lbs. per sq. inch. The setting of pressure reducing valve shall be 60 lbs. to the sq. inch at the outlet side and it shall be located in a manner similar to that of the pressure regulating valve. Outlet pressure reducers shall be set as prescribed by the Fire Commissioner on 2 1/2-inch approved type hose outlet valves. Where pressure regulating or pressure reducing valves are placed in a by-pass of the riser there shall be provided in the standpipe riser within the limits of the by-pass, an approved type swing check valve opening upward.
(jj) Buildings in course of erection. In buildings in course of erection standpipe firelines shall be carried up with each story after the structure reaches the 7th story or a height of 85 ft. and there shall be provided an outside siamese steamer connection in a proper and accessible place, and regulation hose outlets on each story above the 2nd shall be provided as the work progresses. The top of each riser shall be securely capped at all times during the progress of the work except when work on the standpipe fireline is in progress at that point.
(kk) Places covering large areas. Yards or plants shall have one yard hydrant and hose for each 20,000 sq. ft. of area, but in no case shall there be more than 250 ft. distance between hydrants. Plants exceeding 40,000 sq. ft. in area shall be provided with a fire pump of not less than 1,000 gallons per minute capacity, suctioning from a tank or sump of at least 30,000 gallons capacity. The Fire Commissioner may permit suction from a river or well if in his opinion the required quantity of reasonably clean water may be obtained thereby, except that where river suction is proposed and standpipe primary water supply is taken from street main, approval of the proposition shall be obtained also from the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection. In addition to yard hydrants, the Fire Commissioner may require one Monitor nozzle with remote control for each 40,000 sq. ft. of area or fraction thereof when in his opinion an unusual hazard exists or will exist. Monitor nozzles shall be located as ordered by the Fire Commissioner. Provision for steamer connections, fireboat connections, pressure reliefs and general layout of plant standpipe systems shall be made by the Fire Commissioner as his judgment may dictate for each individual case. Fire extinguishing equipment in addition to the foregoing shall be prescribed by the Fire Commissioner for all oil storage plants, oil refineries, fire work plants and other plants when deemed by the Fire Commissioner as presenting unusual fire hazards.
(ll) Theatres, etc. In every theatre or opera house or other building used for theatrical or operatic purpose or amusement purposes as per § 520 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, the standpipe fireline equipments in addition to the tank shall also be supplied by approved electric pump or pumps having a capacity of at least 250 gals. per minute at 100 lbs. per square inch in buildings without occupancy above the roof and at 125 lbs. per square inch pressure in buildings having any occupancy above the auditorium roof. Power for pumps shall be supplied by 25 H. P. electric motors. Pumps shall be by-passed to suction tanks as provided for elsewhere in these rules under fire pumps. Pumps shall suction from steel or reinforced concrete tanks of not less than 5,000 gallons water capacity. Pumps shall deliver initial supply of water and shall be connected to an approved electric device which upon a reduction of pressure below the allowable minimum will automatically start the pump and upon a restoration of the required pressure will automatically shut off the pump. The automatic starting device shall be set to cut in at 60 lbs. pressure and to cut out at 80 lbs. pressure. In addition to the automatic starting device there shall be provided a hand starter for emergency use and there shall also be provided on the panel board a pressure gauge.
(mm) Street main connections. Subject to the requirements of Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection, the size of each standpipe connection to a street main shall be not less than 4 in. in diameter and shall have a conveniently accessible control valve in the line at or near the curb or when practicable in a more remote location. The control valve shall be fitted with a frost and waterproof box not less than 4 ft. nor more than 6 ft. below the curb with a fixed stem extending to a compartment at the level of the sidewalk. The cover shall be bolted to the casing, and shall be so marked as to be quickly located and to indicate the purpose of the valve. The valve shall be of an indicating pattern, operating by a special socket wrench approved by the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection. The water meters used in standpipe fireline supplies shall be of a type allowing free flow of water and bearing the approval of the Board of Standards and Appeals and the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection, or a type of fire line meter which has been previously specifically approved by the Fire Commissioner for use in connection with fire extinguishing equipment. Supply through the meter shall be checked against the Fire Department Siamese Supply and against tank supply. Where 2 1/2 in. standpipe equipment are permitted, the piping from the 2 in. tap to the meter shall be not less than 2 in. in diameter and a meter not less than 2 in. in size shall be provided. All piping beyond the meter and all fittings, valves, check valves, etc., shall be not less than 2 1/2 in. in diameter. Where, due to the presence of a vault under the sidewalk and extending to within 18 in. of the curb, it is impracticable to install a control valve box at the curb, there shall be placed in the feed line from the main a control valve located not more than two feet from the point of entry.
(nn) High and low water to electric alarm. The high and low water electric alarm shall be so constructed and arranged that a lowering of or decrease in the quantity of water in the standpipe tank below the required fire line reserve shall cause an alarm to be given in either the pump room or engineers room. An annunciator shall be provided in connection with the alarm system. The high and low tell-tale electric connection shall be so constructed that it will not be affected by moisture and the parts shall be heavy and rugged. The float shall be of copper. The audible signaling device for high and low water electric alarm shall consist of a vibrating gong of at least 6 in. diameter of the enclosed type and arranged for conduit installation, the same to be operated automatically by the gravity tank float switch. The control cabinet shall be arranged for conduit installation and shall be located in the engineer's room or pump room where it will be under the supervision of the person in charge of the standpipe supply. All wiring shall be installed in rigid conduits and the installation shall be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9 of the Code of Ordinances. Only approved closed circuit systems shall be installed. Control panels must be approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals. The following sources of energy may be employed and are given in their order of preference:
(1) Public utility electric light and power systems.
(2) Electric light or power system (public utility or isolated plant), supplemented by storage battery either controlled by an automatic throw-over device or floating on the line and protected by a reverse current circuit breaker.
(3) Storage batteries in duplicate.
(4) Primary batteries of closed circuit type. When the system is connected to the 110 volt lighting service a suitable cut-out is to be provided and it shall be enclosed in a locked or sealed metal cabinet. The connection to system shall be the first connection on the house side of and as near as practicable to the meter. When batteries are used to operate the system they shall be placed in an approved cabinet provided with a lock and key.
(oo) Dry pipe valve. A dry pipe valve shall be taken to mean a valve automatically controlling the water supply of the standpipe system in such a manner that under normal conditions its piping system will be maintained dry, but in the event of a hose valve being opened, the dry pipe valve automatically releases the water into the standpipe system. In refrigerating plants or in unheated buildings, piers or warehouses where wet lines might be impracticable, the Fire Commissioner may permit the installation of dry pipe valves. Type A, in which the valve is actuated by the release of compressed air in the standpipe system due to the opening of a hose valve; and Type B, in which the valve is actuated by an approved trip under electrical control of an approved non-coded or coded closed circuit system operated from the control station at each hose outlet. Dry pipe valve shall be located as near as practicable to the standpipe system, in an enclosed place, protected from mechanical injury and freezing. When Type A valve is installed the air pressure in the standpipe system under such dry pipe valve control shall not exceed 40 lbs. per sq. in. nor be permitted to fall below 25 lbs. per sq. in. nor shall it be less than one-sixth of the water pressure in any case. Not more than 16 hose outlets shall be supplied through one dry pipe valve. The air compressor shall have a capacity of not less than 11 cu. ft. per minute, and the air supply for the pump shall be taken, if possible from a room containing dry air, or it shall pass through a drying chamber containing calcium chloride in order to avoid the introduction of moisture into the system. An alarm shall be provided in connection with each dry pipe valve installation; the electrical layout shall be approved by the Fire Commissioner.
(pp) Flow tell-tale. A flow tell-tale may be accepted in lieu of an electrical high and low water alarm for tanks in cases where the house supply is taken from the same tank as the standpipe fire line supply. A flow tell-tale shall consist of a 3/4 in. pipe brought through the side of the standpipe supply tank at a level above the 3500 gallon fire line reserve, and said pipe shall be extended to either the pump room or engineer's room and shall terminate in a brass or bronze valve directly above a sink or sump. The control valve shall bear a conspicuous sign reading: "Standpipe Tank Tell-Tale."
(qq) Monitor nozzle. Monitor nozzles shall be so constructed and designed that they may be moved in both vertical and horizontal arcs, and shall be so located that streams may be brought to bear on all portions of the plant or building within the effective radius of stream play and such other exposing properties as may be within this radius. They shall be supplied from connections to the standpipe system not less than 4 in. in diameter.
(rr) Existing standpipes. Standpipe fire line equipment which were approved by the Fire Commissioner as conforming to the rules and regulations then being enforced, shall not be required to be altered to conform to the provisions of these rules, except where substantial additions or extension in height or area is made to the building, when these rules shall apply if deemed advisable or necessary by the Fire Commissioner.
(ss) Hose outlet valve. Hose outlet valve shall be 2 1/2 in. designed and constructed in accordance with specifications printed elsewhere in these rules.
(tt) Outlet valves.
(1) Valves shall have a clear waterway of at least 5 sq. in. in area.
(2) They shall show not more than 10 lbs. fiction loss for a flow of 300 gallons per minute.
(3) They shall close tightly against 300 lbs. pressure under normal working conditions.
(4) They shall stand a pressure test of 500 lbs. per sq. in. for 30 minutes and not distort.
(5) They shall stand the operation of full opening and closing 500 times under 150 lbs. pressure without leaking at stuffing box or seat.
(6) They shall not be of cast or malleable iron.
(7) Each valve shall bear the maker's name, and the date or number of the approval of valve.
(8) Straight run globe valves shall not be permitted.
(uu) Siamese connections. Fire Department siamese connection shall be as hereinafter stated in this subdivision.
(1) The body of the siamese may be of cast iron, cast steel, brass or any other suitable metals of sufficient strength to comply with §10-03(uu)(8). All movable parts, clappers, swivels and all bolts, washers, nuts, screws and pin bearings and all swivel bearings shall be of a non-corrodable metal.
(2) Clapper valve seats shall be made of non-corrodable metal and shall be machined to insure a tight seat for clapper valves.
(3) Each inlet to siamese shall be provided with a clapper valve machined to a true face. Single clapper siamese connections shall not be permitted.
(4) The inside diameter of valve seats shall not be less than the inside diameter of the hose couplings. The area of the waterway beyond the valve seats shall not be less than the combined areas of the waterways through the two valve seats. The area of the waterway of each inlet shall not be reduced by the clapper when in a position of maximum opening.
(5) Clappers must be so hung that when siamese connection is placed in a horizontal position the clappers will be seated.
(6) Swivels, attached to the body of the siamese by means of a collar expanded cold or screwed into the body of the siamese, or with other bearing surface extending entirely around the opening and exerting uniform shear, will be approved if giving a strength sufficient to meet paragraph (8) below.
(7) Clapper valves must be of such design and area that a pressure of 100 lbs. per sq. in. on the standpipe side will not prevent their opening when the pressure on the steamer side is 150 lbs. They must be so hung that with a discontinuance of flow into the siamese through that inlet the valve will close, and that it will not close where there is an inward flow and the pressure on the inlet is 5 lbs. or more greater than the standpipe pressure.
(8) Siamese connections must stand a pressure test of 500 lbs. for 30 minutes and not distort.
(9) Clapper valves shall be reasonably tight for any pressure on standpipe side up to 300 lbs.
(10) Approved caps or plugs must be provided to protect the threads of the inlets.
(11) The inlet swivels to siamese connection shall be provided with threads to fit the Fire Department hose.
(12) The work "standpipe" shall be cast into the top of the body of the siamese in 1 in. letters not less than 1/8 of an in. in depth.
(13) Where there is a fire boat siamese connection in the same system with a land end siamese connection, clapper valves shall be omitted from the land end siamese.
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