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66.6.1* Scope
This subsection shall apply to the hazards associated with storage processing, handling, and use of ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids. This subsection shall also apply when specifically referenced by another section. [30:6.1]
66.6.2 Reserved
66.6.3* Management of Fire and Explosion Hazards
This subsection shall apply to the management methodology used to identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved in the processing and handling of ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids. These hazards include, but are not limited to, preparation, separation, purification, and change of state, energy content, or composition. [30:6.3]
66.6.4 Hazards Analysis
66.6.4.1 General
Operations involving ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids shall be reviewed to ensure that fire and explosion hazards are addressed by fire prevention, fire control, and emergency action plans, except as provided in 66.6.4.1.1. [30:6.4.1]
66.6.4.1.1
The requirement in 66.6.4.1 shall not apply to the following:
  1. Operations where liquids are used solely for on-site consumption as fuels.
  2. Operations where Class II or Class III liquids [FP ≥ 100°F (37.8°C)] are stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred at temperatures below their flash points.
  3. Mercantile occupancies, crude petroleum exploration, drillings, and well servicing operations, and normally unoccupied facilities in remote locations.
[30:6.4.1.1]
66.6.4.1.2 Engineering Evaluation
66.6.4.1.2.1*
The extent of fire prevention and control that is provided shall be determined in consultation with the AHJ or by means of an engineering evaluation of the operation and application of sound fire protection and process engineering principles. [30:6.4.1.2.1]
66.6.4.1.2.2
An engineering evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
  1. Analysis of the fire and explosion hazards of the operation
  2. Analysis of emergency relief from process vessels, taking into consideration the properties of the materials used and the fire protection and control measures taken
  3. Analysis of applicable facility design requirements in Chapters 17, 18, 19, 28, and 29 of NFPA 30
  4. Analysis of applicable requirements for liquid handling, transfer, and use, as covered in Chapters 17, 18, 19, 28, and 29 of NFPA 30
  5. Analysis of local conditions, such as exposure to and from adjacent properties and exposure to floods, earthquakes, and windstorms
  6. Analysis of the emergency response capabilities of the local emergency services
[30::6.4.1.2.2]
66.6.4.1.3*
Storage, processing, handling, and use of Class II and Class III liquids [FP ≥ 100°F (37.8°C)] heated at or above their flash point shall follow the requirements for Class I liquids [FP < 100°F (37.8°C)], unless an engineering evaluation conducted in accordance with Section 66.6 justifies following the requirements for some other liquid class. [30:6.4.1.3]
66.6.4.2 Management of Change
The hazards analysis shall be repeated whenever the hazards leading to a fire or explosion change significantly. Conditions that might require repeating a review shall include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. When changes occur in the materials in process
  2. When changes occur in process equipment
  3. When changes occur in process control
  4. When changes occur in operating procedures or assignments
[30:6.4.2]
66.6.5 Control of Ignition Sources
66.6.5.1 General
Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors by sources such as the following:
  1. Open flames
  2. Lightning
  3. Hot surfaces
  4. Radiant heat
  5. Smoking
  6. Cutting and welding
  7. Spontaneous ignition
  8. * Frictional heat or sparks
  9. Static electricity
  10. Electrical sparks
  11. Stray currents
  12. Ovens, furnaces, and heating equipment
[30:6.5.1]
66.6.5.2 Smoking
Smoking shall be permitted only in designated and identified areas. [30:6.5.2]
66.6.5.3* Hot Work
66.6.5.3.1
Welding, cutting, and similar spark-producing operations shall not be permitted in areas containing Class I liquids [FP < 100°F (37.8°C)] until a written permit authorizing such work has been issued. [30:6.5.3.1]
66.6.5.3.2
The permit shall be issued by a person in authority following inspection of the area to ensure that permit requirements have been implemented and will be followed until the job is completed. [30:6.5.3.2]
66.6.5.4* Static Electricity
66.6.5.4.1
All equipment such as tanks, machinery, and piping shall be designed and operated to prevent electrostatic ignitions. [30:6.5.4.1]
66.6.5.4.2
All metallic equipment such as tanks, machinery, and piping where the potential exists for an ignitible mixture to be present shall be bonded and grounded. [30:6.5.4.2]
66.6.5.4.3
The bond and ground shall be physically applied or shall be inherently present by the nature of the installation. [30:6.5.4.3]
66.6.5.4.4
Any electrically isolated section of metallic piping or equipment shall be bonded and grounded to prevent hazardous accumulation of static electricity. [30:6.5.4.4]
66.6.5.4.5
All nonmetallic equipment and piping where the potential exists for an ignitible mixture to be present shall be designed and operated to prevent electrostatic ignition. [30:6.5.4.5] 
66.6.5.5 Electrical Systems
Design, selection, and installation of electrical wiring and electrical utilization equipment shall meet the requirements of Section 66.7. [30:6.5.5]
66.6.6 Detection and Alarm Systems and Procedures
66.6.6.1*
An approved means shall be provided for prompt notification of fire or other emergency to those identified in the emergency action plan in accordance with Section 66.6.8. [30:6.6.1]
66.6.6.2
Those areas, including buildings, where a potential exists for a Class I liquid [flash point < 100°F (37.8°C)] spill shall be monitored as appropriate. The following methods shall be permitted to be used:
  1. Personnel observation or patrol
  2. Process-monitoring equipment that would indicate a spill or leak could have occurred
  3. Provision of gas detectors to continuously monitor the area where facilities are unattended
[30:6.6.2]
66.6.7 Fire Protection and Fire Suppression Systems
66.6.7.1*
This section identifies recognized fire protection and fire suppression systems and methods used to prevent or minimize the loss from fire or explosion in ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquid-processing facilities. The application of one or a combination of these systems and methods as well as the use of fire-resistive materials shall be determined in accordance with Sections 66.6.3 and 66.6.4. [30:6.7.1]
66.6.7.2
A reliable water supply or other suitable fire control agent shall be available in pressure and quantity to meet the fire demands indicated by the specific hazards of liquids-processing operations, storage, or exposure. [30:6.7.2]
66.6.7.3*
Permanent connections between the fire water system and any process system shall be prohibited, to prevent contamination of fire water with process fluids. [30:6.7.3]
66.6.7.4
Where required by this section, hydrants, with or without fixed monitor nozzles, shall be provided in accordance with this Code and NFPA 24. The number and placement shall depend on the hazards of the facility. [30:6.7.4]
66.6.7.5
Where the need is indicated by the hazards of ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquid processing, storage, or exposure as determined by 66.6.4, fixed protection shall be provided. [30:6.7.5]
66.6.7.6
Where required by this section, standpipe and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14 or hose connections from sprinkler systems using combination spray and straight stream nozzles shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [30:6.7.7]
66.6.7.7*
Where required by this section, listed portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in such quantities, sizes, and types as are needed for the specific hazards of operation and storage. [30:6.7.8]
66.6.7.8
Where provided, mobile foam apparatus and supplies of foam concentrate shall be appropriate to the specific hazards. [30:6.7.9]
66.6.8 Emergency Planning and Training
66.6.8.1
A written emergency action plan that is consistent with available equipment and personnel shall be established to respond to fires and related emergencies. This plan shall include the following:
  1. Procedures to be followed in case of fire or release of liquids or vapors, such as sounding the alarm, notifying the fire department, evacuating personnel, and controlling and extinguishing the fire
  2. Procedures and schedules for conducting drills of these procedures
  3. Appointment and training of personnel to carry out assigned duties, including review at the time of initial assignment, as responsibilities or response actions change, and whenever anticipated duties change
  4. Procedures for maintenance and operation of (a) fire protection equipment and systems, (b) drainage and containment systems, and (c) dispersion and ventilation equipment and systems
  5. Procedures for shutting down or isolating equipment to reduce, mitigate, or stop the release of liquid or vapors, including assigning personnel responsible for maintaining critical plant functions or shutdown of plant processes and safe start-up following isolation or shutdown
  6. Alternate measures for the safety of occupants
[30:6.8.1]
66.6.8.2
Personnel responsible for the use and operation of fire protection equipment shall be trained in the use of that equipment. Refresher training shall be conducted at least annually. [30:6.8.2]
66.6.8.3
Planning of effective fire control measures shall be coordinated with local emergency response agencies. [30:6.8.3]
66.6.8.4
Procedures shall be established to provide for safe shutdown of operations under emergency conditions and for safe start-up following cessation of emergencies. Provisions shall be made for training of personnel in shutdown and start-up procedures, and in activation, use, and deactivation of associated alarms, interlocks, and controls. Procedures shall also be established and provisions shall also be made for inspection and testing of associated alarms, interlocks, and controls. [30:6.8.4]
66.6.8.5
The emergency procedures shall be kept readily available in the operating areas and shall be updated when conditions change, as identified in 66.6.4.2. [30:6.8.5]
66.6.8.5.1
Where premises are likely to be unattended for considerable periods of time, a summary of the emergency plan shall be posted or located in a strategic and accessible location. [30:6.8.5.1]
66.6.9 Inspection and Maintenance
66.6.9.1
All fire protection equipment shall be properly maintained, and periodic inspections and tests shall be done in accordance with both standard practice and the equipment manufacturers recommendations. Water-based fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with this Code and NFPA 25. [30:6.9.1]
66.6.9.2
Maintenance and operating practices shall be established and implemented to prevent and control leakage and spillage of ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids. [30:6.9.2]
66.6.9.3
Combustible waste material and residues in operating areas shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal containers, and disposed of daily. [30:6.9.3]
66.6.9.4
Ground areas around facilities where liquids are stored, handled, or used shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials. [30:6.9.4]
66.6.9.5
Aisles established for movement of personnel shall be kept clear of obstructions to permit orderly evacuation and ready access for manual fire-fighting activities. [30:6.9.5]
66.6.10 Management of Security
66.6.10.1 Scope
66.6.10.1.1
This section shall apply to the management methodology used to identify, evaluate, and control the security hazards involved in the processing, storage, and handling of ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids. [30:6.10.1.1]
66.6.10.1.2
These hazards include, but are not limited to, vulnerability to terrorist or other malicious attacks. [30:6.10.1.2]
66.6.10.2 General
The methodology used shall incorporate a risk-based approach to site security and shall have the following objectives:
  1. Identification and evaluation of security risks
  2. Evaluation of the security performance of the facility
  3. Evaluation of protection for employees, the facility itself, the surrounding communities, and the environment. (See Annex G of NFPA 30 for more detailed information.)
[30:6.10.2]
66.6.10.3 Specific Requirements
66.6.10.3.1
Operations involving ignitible (flammable or combustible) liquids shall be reviewed to ensure that security vulnerabilities identified during the security vulnerability assessment (SVA) are addressed in a facility security program, with corresponding fire prevention and emergency action plans and drills. [30:6.10.3.1]
66.6.10.3.2
The balance of physical, electronic, and personnel techniques used to respond to the SVA shall be determined by means of an engineering evaluation of the operation and application of sound security principles. This evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
  1. Assessing overall facility
  2. Evaluating vulnerabilities
  3. Assessing threats/consequences
  4. Assessing physical factors/attractiveness
  5. Identifying mitigation factors
  6. Conducting security assessment or gap analysis
[30:6.10.3.2]
66.6.10.3.3
A written emergency action plan that is consistent with available equipment and personnel shall be established to respond to fires, security, and related emergencies. This plan shall include the following:
  1. Procedures to be followed such as initiating alarms, notifying appropriate agencies, evacuating personnel, and controlling and extinguishing the fire
  2. Procedures and schedules for conducting drills of these procedures
  3. Appointment and training of personnel to carry out assigned duties
  4. Maintenance of fire protection and response equipment
  5. Procedures for shutting down or isolating equipment to reduce the release of liquid
  6. Alternate measures for the safety of occupants
[30:6.10.3.3]
66.6.10.3.4
Specific duties of personnel shall be reviewed at the time of initial assignment, as responsibilities or response actions change, and whenever anticipated duties change. [30:6.10.3.4]
66.6.10.3.5
The security management review conducted in accordance with this section shall be repeated under the following conditions:
  1. For an initial review of all new relevant facilities and assets
  2. When substantial changes to the threat or process occur
  3. After a significant security incident
  4. For periodic revalidation of the SVA
[30:6.10.3.5]

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