UpCodes logo
// CODE SNIPPET

Section 2109 Empirical Design of Masonry

Jump To Full Code Chapter
2109.1 General
Empirically designed masonry shall conform to the requirements of Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.
2109.1.1 Limitations
The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as noted in Section A.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The use of dry-stacked, surfacebonded masonry shall be prohibited in Risk Category IV structures. In buildings that exceed one or more of the limitations of Section A.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, masonry shall be designed in accordance with the engineered design provisions of Section 2101.2 or the foundation wall provisions of Section 1807.1.5.

Section A.1.2.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 shall be modified as follows:

A.1.2.2 Wind. Empirical requirements shall not apply to the design or construction of masonry for buildings, parts of buildings, or other structures to be located in areas where Vasd as determined in accordance with Section 1609.3.1 of the International Building Code exceeds 110 mph.
2109.2 Surface-Bonded Walls
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall comply with the requirements of Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.
2109.2.1 Strength
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall be of adequate strength and proportions to support all superimposed loads without exceeding the allowable stresses listed in Table 2109.2.1. Allowable stresses not specified in Table 2109.2.1 shall comply with the requirements of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
TABLE 2109.2.1
ALLOWABLE STRESS GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL
AREA FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE-BONDED
CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS
DESCRIPTION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
STRESS (psi)
Compression standard block 45
Flexural tension
Horizontal span
30
Vertical span
18
Shear 10
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 MPa.
2109.2.2 Construction
Construction of dry-stacked, surface-bonded masonry walls, including stacking and leveling of units, mixing and application of mortar and curing and protection shall comply with ASTM C946.
2109.3 Adobe Construction
Adobe construction shall comply with this section and shall be subject to the requirements of this code for Type V construction, Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, and this section.
2109.3.1 Unstabilized Adobe
Unstabilized adobe shall comply with Sections 2109.3.1.1 through 2109.3.1.4.
2109.3.1.1 Compressive Strength
Adobe units shall have an average compressive strength of 300 psi (2068 kPa) when tested in accordance with ASTM C67. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit is permitted to have a compressive strength of less than 250 psi (1724 kPa).
2109.3.1.2 Modulus of Rupture
Adobe units shall have an average modulus of rupture of 50 psi (345 kPa) when tested in accordance with the following procedure. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit shall have a modulus of rupture of less than 35 psi (241 kPa).
2109.3.1.2.1 Support Conditions
A cured unit shall be simply supported by 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylindrical supports located 2 inches (51 mm) in from each end and extending the full width of the unit.
2109.3.1.2.2 Loading Conditions
A 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylinder shall be placed at midspan parallel to the supports.
2109.3.1.2.3 Testing Procedure
A vertical load shall be applied to the cylinder at the rate of 500 pounds per minute (37 N/s) until failure occurs.
2109.3.1.2.4 Modulus of Rupture Determination
The modulus of rupture shall be determined by the equation:



where, for the purposes of this section only:

Sw = Width of the test specimen measured parallel to the loading cylinder, inches (mm).
fr = Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).
Ls = Distance between supports, inches (mm).
St = Thickness of the test specimen measured parallel to the direction of load, inches (mm).
P = The applied load at failure, pounds (N).
2109.3.1.3 Moisture Content Requirements
Adobe units shall have a moisture content not exceeding 4 percent by weight.
2109.3.1.4 Shrinkage Cracks
Adobe units shall not contain more than three shrinkage cracks and any single shrinkage crack shall not exceed 3 inches (76 mm) in length or 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in width.
2109.3.2 Stabilized Adobe
Stabilized adobe shall comply with Section 2109.3.1 for unstabilized adobe in addition to Sections 2109.3.2.1 and 2109.3.2.2.
2109.3.2.1 Soil Requirements
Soil used for stabilized adobe units shall be chemically compatible with the stabilizing material.
2109.3.2.2 Absorption Requirements
A 4-inch (102 mm) cube, cut from a stabilized adobe unit dried to a constant weight in a ventilated oven at 212°F to 239°F (100°C to 115°C), shall not absorb more than 21/2 percent moisture by weight when placed upon a constantly water-saturated, porous surface for seven days. A minimum of five specimens shall be tested and each specimen shall be cut from a separate unit.
2109.3.3 Allowable Stress
The allowable compressive stress based on gross cross-sectional area of adobe shall not exceed 30 psi (207 kPa).
2109.3.3.1 Bolts
Bolt values shall not exceed those set forth in Table 2109.3.3.1.

TABLE 2109.3.3.1
ALLOWABLE SHEAR ON BOLTS IN ADOBE MASONRY
DIAMETER OF BOLTS
(inches)
MINIMUM EMBEDMENT
(inches)
SHEAR
(pounds)
1/2
5/8 12 200
3/4 15 300
7/8 18 400
1 21 500
11/8 24 600
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
2109.3.4 Detailed Requirements
Adobe construction shall comply with Sections 2109.3.4.1 through 2109.3.4.9.
2109.3.4.1 Number of Stories
Adobe construction shall be limited to buildings not exceeding one story, except that two-story construction is allowed when designed by a registered design professional.
2109.3.4.2 Mortar
Mortar for adobe construction shall comply with Sections 2109.3.4.2.1 and 2109.3.4.2.2.
2109.3.4.2.1 General
Mortar for stabilized adobe units shall comply with this chapter or adobe soil. Adobe soil used as mortar shall comply with material requirements for stabilized adobe. Mortar for unstabilized adobe shall be Portland cement mortar.
2109.3.4.2.2 Mortar Joints
Adobe units shall be laid with full head and bed joints and in full running bond.
2109.3.4.3 Parapet Walls
Parapet walls constructed of adobe units shall be waterproofed.
2109.3.4.4 Wall Thickness
The minimum thickness of exterior walls in one-story buildings shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The walls shall be laterally supported at intervals not exceeding 24 feet (7315 mm). The minimum thickness of interior load-bearing walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). In no case shall the unsupported height of any wall constructed of adobe units exceed 10 times the thickness of such wall.
2109.3.4.5 Foundations
Foundations for adobe construction shall be in accordance with Sections 2109.3.4.5.1 and 2109.3.4.5.2.
2109.3.4.5.1 Foundation Support
Walls and partitions constructed of adobe units shall be supported by foundations or footings that extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above adjacent ground surfaces and are constructed of solid masonry (excluding adobe) or concrete. Footings and foundations shall comply with Chapter 18.
2109.3.4.5.2 Lower Course Requirements
Stabilized adobe units shall be used in adobe walls for the first 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished first-floor elevation.
2109.3.4.6 Isolated Piers or Columns
Adobe units shall not be used for isolated piers or columns in a loadbearing capacity. Walls less than 24 inches (610 mm) in length shall be considered isolated piers or columns.
2109.3.4.7 Tie Beams
Exterior walls and interior loadbearing walls constructed of adobe units shall have a continuous tie beam at the level of the floor or roof bearing and meeting the following requirements.
2109.3.4.7.1 Concrete Tie Beams
Concrete tie beams shall be a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Concrete tie beams shall be continuously reinforced with a minimum of two No. 4 reinforcing bars. The specified compressive strength of concrete shall be at least 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa).
2109.3.4.7.2 Wood Tie Beams
Wood tie beams shall be solid or built up of lumber having a minimum nominal thickness of 1 inch (25 mm), and shall have a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Joints in wood tie beams shall be spliced a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm). No splices shall be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of an opening. Wood used in tie beams shall be approved naturally decay-resistant or preservative-treated wood.
2109.3.4.8 Exterior Finish
Exterior walls constructed of unstabilized adobe units shall have their exterior surface covered with a minimum of two coats of Portland cement plaster having a minimum thickness of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) and conforming to ASTM C926. Lathing shall comply with ASTM C1063. Fasteners shall be spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center maximum. Exposed wood surfaces shall be treated with an approved wood preservative or other protective coating prior to lath application.
2109.3.4.9 Lintels
Lintels shall be considered structural members and shall be designed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 16.

Related Code Sections

Section 2109 Masonry, Empirical Design of Masonry
Empirically designed masonry shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section ...
Section 2109 Masonry, Empirical Design of Masonry
Empirically designed masonry shall conform to the requirements of Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section ...
2109.3 Masonry, Adobe Construction
SHEAR ON BOLTS IN ADOBE MASONRY DIAMETER OF BOLTS (inches) MINIMUM EMBEDMENT (inches) SHEAR (pounds) 1/2 — — 5/8 12 200 ...
2109.1.1 Masonry, Limitations
The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as noted in Section 5.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The use of dry-stacked, surface- bonded ...
2109.1.1 Masonry, Limitations
The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as noted in Section A.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The use of dry-stacked, surfacebonded ...