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407 Elevators

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407.1 General
Elevators shall comply with 407 and with ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1).  They shall be passenger elevators as classified by ASME A17.1.  Elevator operation shall be automatic.
Advisory 407.1 General.  The ADA and other Federal civil rights laws require that accessible features be maintained in working order so that they are accessible to and usable by those people they are intended to benefit.  Building owners should note that the ASME Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators requires routine maintenance and inspections.  Isolated or temporary interruptions in service due to maintenance or repairs may be unavoidable; however, failure to take prompt action to effect repairs could constitute a violation of Federal laws and these requirements.
407.2 Elevator Landing Requirements
Elevator landings shall comply with 407.2.
407.2.1 Call Controls
Where elevator call buttons or keypads are provided, they shall comply with 407.2.1 and 309.4. Call buttons shall be raised or flush.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevators shall be permitted to have recessed call buttons.
407.2.1.1 Height
Call buttons and keypads shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.

EXCEPTION: Existing call buttons and existing keypads shall be permitted to be located at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor, measured to the centerline of the highest operable part.
407.2.1.2 Size
Call buttons shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum in the smallest dimension.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevator call buttons shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.2.
407.2.1.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space
A clear floor or ground space complying with 305 shall be provided at call controls.
Advisory 407.2.1.3 Clear Floor or Ground Space.  The clear floor or ground space required at elevator call buttons must remain free of obstructions including ashtrays, plants, and other decorative elements that prevent wheelchair users and others from reaching the call buttons.  The height of the clear floor or ground space is considered to be a volume from the floor to 80 inches (2030 mm) above the floor.  Recessed ashtrays should not be placed near elevator call buttons so that persons who are blind or visually impaired do not inadvertently contact them or their contents as they reach for the call buttons.
407.2.1.4 Location
The call button that designates the up direction shall be located above the call button that designates the down direction.

EXCEPTION: Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.4.
Advisory 407.2.1.4 Location Exception.  A destination-oriented elevator system provides lobby controls enabling passengers to select floor stops, lobby indicators designating which elevator to use, and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop.  Responding cars are programmed for maximum efficiency by reducing the number of stops any passenger experiences.
407.2.1.5 Signals
Call buttons shall have visible signals to indicate when each call is registered and when each call is answered.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.5 provided that visible and audible signals complying with 407.2.2 indicating which elevator car to enter are provided.
  2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.1.5.
407.2.1.6 Keypads
Where keypads are provided, keypads shall be in a standard telephone keypad arrangement and shall comply with 407.4.7.2.
407.2.2 Hall Signals
Hall signals, including in-car signals, shall comply with 407.2.2.
407.2.2.1 Visible and Audible Signals
A visible and audible signal shall be provided at each hoistway entrance to indicate which car is answering a call and the car's direction of travel. Where in-car signals are provided, they shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call buttons.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Visible and audible signals shall not be required at each destination-oriented elevator where a visible and audible signal complying with 407.2.2 is provided indicating the elevator car designation information.
  2. In existing elevators, a signal indicating the direction of car travel shall not be required.
407.2.2.2 Visible Signals
Visible signal fixtures shall be centered at 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. The visible signal elements shall be 21/2 inches (64 mm) minimum measured along the vertical centerline of the element. Signals shall be visible from the floor area adjacent to the hall call button.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Destination-oriented elevators shall be permitted to have signals visible from the floor area adjacent to the hoistway entrance.
  2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.2.2.
Figure 407.2.2.2 Visible Hall Signals
Visible signals are shown centered at 72 inches (1830 mm) minimum above the floor ground.  The individual
407.2.2.3 Audible Signals
Audible signals shall sound once for the up direction and twice for the down direction, or shall have verbal annunciators that indicate the direction of elevator car travel. Audible signals shall have a frequency of 1500 Hz maximum. Verbal annunciators shall have a frequency of 300 Hz minimum and 3000 Hz maximum. The audible signal and verbal annunciator shall be 10 dB minimum above ambient, but shall not exceed 80 dB, measured at the hall call button.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.2.2.3 provided that the audible tone and verbal announcement is the same as those given at the call button or call button keypad.
  2. Existing elevators shall not be required to comply with the requirements for frequency and dB range of audible signals.
407.2.2.4 Differentiation
Each destination-oriented elevator in a bank of elevators shall have audible and visible means for differentiation.
407.2.3 Hoistway Signs
Signs at elevator hoistways shall comply with 407.2.3.
407.2.3.1 Floor Designation
Floor designations complying with 703.2 and 703.4.1 shall be provided on both jambs of elevator hoistway entrances.  Floor designations shall be provided in both tactile characters and braille. Tactile characters shall be 2 inches (51 mm) high minimum. A tactile star shall be provided on both jambs at the main entry level.
Figure 407.2.3.1 Floor Designations on Jambs of Elevator Hoistway Entrances
An enlarged detail of a tactile floor designation is shown.  The sign contains a star and the number A1" next to it which is 2 inches (51 mm) high; the braille equivalent is provided below each.
407.2.3.2 Car Designations
Destination-oriented elevators shall provide tactile car identification complying with 703.2 on both jambs of the hoistway immediately below the floor designation. Car designations shall be provided in both tactile characters and braille. Tactile characters shall be 2 inches (51 mm) high minimum.
Figure 407.2.3.2 Car Designations on Jambs of Destination-Oriented Elevator Hoistway Entrances
An enlarged detail shows the car designation below the floor designation.  The car designation is 2 inches (51 mm) minimum high with the braille equivalent below it.
407.3 Elevator Door Requirements
Hoistway and car doors shall comply with 407.3.
407.3.1 Type
Elevator doors shall be the horizontal sliding type.  Car gates shall be prohibited.
407.3.2 Operation
Elevator hoistway and car doors shall open and close automatically.

EXCEPTION: Existing manually operated hoistway swing doors shall be permitted provided that they comply with 404.2.3 and 404.2.9. Car door closing shall not be initiated until the hoistway door is closed.
407.3.3 Reopening Device
Elevator doors shall be provided with a reopening device complying with 407.3.3 that shall stop and reopen a car door and hoistway door automatically if the door becomes obstructed by an object or person.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevators with manually operated doors shall not be required to comply with 407.3.3.
407.3.3.1 Height
The device shall be activated by sensing an obstruction passing through the opening at 5 inches (125 mm) nominal and 29 inches (735 mm) nominal above the finish floor.
407.3.3.2 Contact
The device shall not require physical contact to be activated, although contact is permitted to occur before the door reverses.
407.3.3.3 Duration
Door reopening devices shall remain effective for 20 seconds minimum.
407.3.4 Door and Signal Timing
The minimum acceptable time from notification that a car is answering a call or notification of the car assigned at the means for the entry of destination information until the doors of that car start to close shall be calculated from the following equation:

T = D/(1.5 ft/s) or T = D/(455 mm/s) = 5 seconds minimum where T equals the total time in seconds and D equals the distance (in feet or millimeters) from the point in the lobby or corridor 60 inches (1525 mm) directly in front of the farthest call button controlling that car to the centerline of its hoistway door.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. For cars with in-car lanterns, T shall be permitted to begin when the signal is visible from the point 60 inches (1525 mm) directly in front of the farthest hall call button and the audible signal is sounded.
  2. Destination-oriented elevators shall not be required to comply with 407.3.4.
407.3.5 Door Delay
Elevator doors shall remain fully open in response to a car call for 3 seconds minimum.
407.3.6 Width
The width of elevator doors shall comply with Table 407.4.1.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, a power-operated car door complying with 404.2.3 shall be permitted.
407.4 Elevator Car Requirements
Elevator cars shall comply with 407.4.
407.4.1 Car Dimensions
Inside dimensions of elevator cars and clear width of elevator doors shall comply with Table 407.4.1.

EXCEPTION: Existing elevator car configurations that provide a clear floor area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) minimum and also provide an inside clear depth 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum and a clear width 36 inches (915 mm) minimum shall be permitted.
Table 407.4.1 Elevator Car Dimensions 
Door Location Minimum Dimensions
Door Clear Width Inside Car, Side to Side Inside Car, Back Wall to Front Return Inside Car, Back Wall to Inside Face of Door
  1. A tolerance of minus 5/8 inch (16 mm) is permitted.
  2. Other car configurations that provide a turning space complying with 304 with the door closed shall be permitted.
Centered 42 inches (1065 mm) 80 inches (2030 mm) 51 inches (1295 mm) 54 inches (1370 mm)
Side (off-centered) 36 inches (915 mm)1 68 inches (1725 mm) 51 inches (1295 mm) 54 inches (1370 mm)
Any 36 inches (915 mm)1 54 inches (1370 mm) 80 inches (2030 mm) 80 inches (2030 mm)
Any 36 inches (915 mm)2 60 inches (1525 mm)2 60 inches (1525 mm)2 60 inches (1525 mm)2
Figure 407.4.1 Elevator Car Dimensions
407.4.2 Floor Surfaces
Floor surfaces in elevator cars shall comply with 302 and 303.
407.4.3 Platform to Hoistway Clearance
The clearance between the car platform sill and the edge of any hoistway landing shall be 1 1/4 inch (32 mm) maximum.
407.4.4 Leveling
Each car shall be equipped with a self-leveling feature that will automatically bring and maintain the car at floor landings within a tolerance of 1/2 inch (13 mm) under rated loading to zero loading conditions.
407.4.5 Illumination
The level of illumination at the car controls, platform, car threshold and car landing sill shall be 5 foot candles (54 lux) minimum.
407.4.6 Elevator Car Controls
Where provided, elevator car controls shall comply with 407.4.6 and 309.4.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.6 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.6.
407.4.6.1 Location
Controls shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Where the elevator panel serves more than 16 openings and a parallel approach is provided, buttons with floor designations shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor.
  2. In existing elevators, car control buttons with floor designations shall be permitted to be located 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor where a parallel approach is provided.
407.4.6.2 Buttons
Car control buttons with floor designations shall comply with 407.4.6.2 and shall be raised or flush.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, buttons shall be permitted to be recessed.
407.4.6.2.1 Size
Buttons shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum in their smallest dimension.
407.4.6.2.2 Arrangement
Buttons shall be arranged with numbers in ascending order.  When two or more columns of buttons are provided they shall read from left to right.
407.4.6.3 Keypads
Car control keypads shall be in a standard telephone keypad arrangement and shall comply with 407.4.7.2.
407.4.6.4 Emergency Controls
Emergency controls shall comply with 407.4.6.4.
407.4.6.4.1 Height
Emergency control buttons shall have their centerlines 35 inches (890 mm) minimum above the finish floor.
407.4.6.4.2 Location
Emergency controls, including the emergency alarm, shall be grouped at the bottom of the panel.
407.4.7 Designations and Indicators of Car Controls
Designations and indicators of car controls shall comply with 407.4.7.

EXCEPTION: In existing elevators, where a new car operating panel complying with 407.4.7 is provided, existing car operating panels shall not be required to comply with 407.4.7.
407.4.7.1 Buttons
Car control buttons shall comply with 407.4.7.1.
407.4.7.1.1 Type
Control buttons shall be identified by tactile characters complying with 703.2.
407.4.7.1.2 Location
Raised character and braille designations shall be placed immediately to the left of the control button to which the designations apply.

EXCEPTION: Where space on an existing car operating panel precludes tactile markings to the left of the controls, markings shall be placed as near to the control as possible.
407.4.7.1.3 Symbols
The control button for the emergency stop, alarm, door open, door close, main entry floor, and phone, shall be identified with tactile symbols as shown in Table 407.4.7.1.3.
Table 407.4.7.1.3 Elevator Control Button Identification
Control ButtonTactile SymbolBraille Message
Emergency Stop octagon with incised X stop (Grade 2 Braille)"ST"OP Three cells
Alarm bell alarm (Grade 2 Braille)AL"AR"M four cells
Door Open two arrows pointing outward open (Grade 2 Braille)OP"EN" three cells
Door Close two facing arrows close (Grade 2 Braille)CLOSE five cells
Main Entry Floor star main (Grade 2 Braille)MA"IN" three cells
Phone phone handset phone (Grade 2 Braille)PH"ONE" four cells
407.4.7.1.4 Visible Indicators
Buttons with floor designations shall be provided with visible indicators to show that a call has been registered.  The visible indication shall extinguish when the car arrives at the designated floor.
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