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Section 1206 Electrical Energy Storage Systems
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1206.2 Stationary Storage Battery Systems
Stationary storage battery systems having capacities exceeding the values shown in Table 1206.2 shall comply with Section 1206.2.1 through 1126.96.36.199, as applicable.
BATTERY STORAGE SYSTEM THRESHOLD QUANTITIES.
|Flow batteriesb||20 kWh|
|Lead acid, all types||70 kWh|
|Lithium, all types||20 kWh|
|Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd)||70 kWh|
|Sodium, all types||20 kWhc|
|Other battery technologies||10 kWh|
For SI: 1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 megajoules.
- For batteries rated in amp-hours, kWh shall equal rated voltage times amp-hour rating divided by 1000.
- Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte-type technologies.
- 70 kWh for sodium-ion technologies.
Permits shall be obtained for the installation and operation of stationary storage battery systems in accordance with Section 105.7.2.
1206.2.2 Construction Documents
The following information shall be provided with the permit application:
- Location and layout diagram of the room in which the stationary storage battery system is to be installed.
- Details on hourly fire-resistance-rated assemblies provided.
- Quantities and types of storage batteries and battery systems.
- Manufacturer's specifications, ratings and listings of storage batteries and battery systems.
- Details on energy management systems.
- Location and content of signage.
- Details on fire-extinguishing, smoke detection and ventilation systems.
- Rack storage arrangement, including seismic support criteria.
1206.2.3 Hazard Mitigation Analysis
A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) or other approved hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided in accordance with Section 104.7.2 under any of the following conditions:
- Battery technologies not specifically identified in Table 1206.2 are provided.
- More than one stationary storage battery technology is provided in a room or indoor area where there is a potential for adverse interaction between technologies.
- Where allowed as a basis for increasing maximum allowable quantities in accordance with Section 1206.2.9.
1188.8.131.52 Fault Condition
The hazard mitigation analysis shall evaluate the consequences of the following failure modes, and others deemed necessary by the fire code official. Only single-failure modes shall be considered.
- Thermal runaway condition in a single-battery storage rack, module or array.
- Failure of any energy management system.
- Failure of any required ventilation system.
- Voltage surges on the primary electric supply.
- Short circuits on the load side of the stationary battery storage system.
- Failure of the smoke detection, fire-extinguishing or gas detection system.
- Spill neutralization not being provided or failure of the secondary containment system.
1184.108.40.206 Analysis Approval
The fire code official is authorized to approve the hazardous mitigation analysis provided that the hazard mitigation analysis demonstrates all of the following:
- Fires or explosions will be contained within unoccupied battery storage rooms for the minimum duration of the fire-resistance-rated walls identified in Table 509.1 of the International Building Code.
- Fires and explosions in battery cabinets in occupied work centers will be detected in time to allow occupants within the room to evacuate safely.
- Toxic and highly toxic gases released during fires and other fault conditions shall not reach concentrations in excess of Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) levels in the building or adjacent means of egress routes during the time deemed necessary to evacuate from that area.
- Flammable gases released from batteries during charging, discharging and normal operation shall not exceed 25 percent of their lower flammability limit (LFL).
- Flammable gases released from batteries during fire, overcharging and other abnormal conditions shall not create an explosion hazard that will injure occupants or emergency responders.
1220.127.116.11 Additional Protection Measures
Construction, equipment and systems that are required for the stationary storage battery system to comply with the hazardous mitigation analysis, including but not limited to those specifically described in Section 1206.2, shall be installed, maintained and tested in accordance with nationally recognized standards and specified design parameters.
1206.2.4 Seismic and Structural Design
Stationary storage battery systems shall comply with the seismic design requirements in Chapter 16 of the International Building Code, and shall not exceed the floor-loading limitation of the building.
1206.2.5 Vehicle Impact Protection
Where stationary storage battery systems are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, including fork lifts, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.
1206.2.6 Combustible Storage
Combustible materials not related to the stationary storage battery system shall not be stored in battery rooms, cabinets or enclosures. Combustible materials in occupied work centers covered by Section 118.104.22.168 shall not be stored less than 3 feet (915 mm) from battery cabinets.
1206.2.7 Testing, Maintenance and Repair
Storage batteries and associated equipment and systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Any storage batteries or system components used to replace existing units shall be compatible with the battery charger, energy management systems, other storage batteries and other safety systems. Introducing other types of storage batteries into the stationary storage battery system or other types of electrolytes into flow battery systems shall be treated as a new installation and require approval by the fire code official before the replacements are introduced into service.
1206.2.8 Location and Construction
Rooms and areas containing stationary storage battery systems shall be designed, located and constructed in accordance with Sections 122.214.171.124 through 1126.96.36.199.4.
Stationary storage battery systems shall not be located in areas where the floor is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level is more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.
- Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium stationary storage battery systems.
- Installations on noncombustible rooftops of buildings exceeding 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height that do not obstruct fire department rooftop operations, where approved by the fire code official.
Rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be separated from other areas of the building in accordance with Section 509.1 of the International Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.
1188.8.131.52 Stationary Battery Arrays
Storage batteries, prepackaged stationary storage battery systems and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be segregated into stationary battery arrays not exceeding 50 kWh (180 megajoules) each. Each stationary battery array shall be spaced not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from other stationary battery arrays and from walls in the storage room or area. The storage arrangements shall comply with Chapter 10.
- Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium storage battery arrays.
- Listed preengineered stationary storage battery systems and prepackaged stationary storage battery systems shall not exceed 250 kWh (900 megajoules) each.
- The fire code official is authorized to approve listed, preengineered and prepackaged battery arrays with larger capacities or smaller battery array spacing if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving one array will not propagate to an adjacent array, and be contained within the room for a duration equal to the fire-resistance rating of the room separation specified in Table 509 of the International Building Code.
1184.108.40.206 Separate Rooms
Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room that can be accessed only by authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.
1220.127.116.11 Occupied Work Centers
Where stationary storage batteries are located in an occupied work center, they shall be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.
Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.
Approved signs shall be provided on doors or in locations near entrances to stationary storage battery system rooms and shall include the following or equivalent:
- The room contains energized battery systems.
- The room contains energized electrical circuits.
- The additional markings required in Section 1206.2.12 for the types of storage batteries contained within the room.
Exception: Existing stationary storage battery systems shall be permitted to include the signage required at the time it was installed.
118.104.22.168.1 Electrical Disconnects
Where the stationary storage battery system disconnecting means is not within sight of the main service disconnecting means, placards or directories shall be installed at the location of the main service disconnecting means indicating the location of stationary storage battery system disconnecting means in accordance with NFPA 70.
122.214.171.124.2 Cabinet Signage
Battery storage cabinets provided in occupied work centers in accordance with Section 1126.96.36.199 shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical and chemical hazards, as required by Section 1206.2.12.
1188.8.131.52 Outdoor Installations
Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall comply with Sections 1184.108.40.206 through 1220.127.116.11.4, in addition to all applicable requirements of Section 1206.2. Installations in outdoor enclosures or containers that can be occupied for servicing, testing, maintenance and other functions shall be treated as battery storage rooms.
Exception: Stationary battery arrays in noncombustible containers shall not be required to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) from the container walls.
Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall be separated by a minimum 5 feet (1524 mm) from the following:
- Lot lines.
- Public ways.
- Stored combustible materials.
- Hazardous materials.
- High-piled stock.
- Other exposure hazards.
Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve smaller separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress from adjacent buildings, or adversely impact adjacent stored materials or structures.
118.104.22.168.2 Means of Egress
Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall be separated from any means of egress as required by the fire code official to ensure safe egress under fire conditions, but not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve lesser separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress.
122.214.171.124.3 Security of Outdoor Areas
Outdoor areas in which stationary storage battery systems are located shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner.
1126.96.36.199.4 Walk-in Units
Where a stationary storage battery system includes an outer enclosure, the unit shall only be entered for inspection, maintenance and repair of batteries and electronics, and shall not be occupied for other purposes.
1206.2.9 Maximum Allowable Quantities
Fire areas within buildings containing stationary storage battery systems exceeding the maximum allowable quantities in Table 1206.2.9 shall comply with all applicable Group H occupancy requirements in this code and the International Building Code.
Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, areas containing stationary storage batteries that exceed the amounts in Table 1206.2.9 shall be treated as incidental use areas and not Group H occupancies based on a hazardous mitigation analysis in accordance with Section 1206.2.3 and large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE BATTERY QUANTITIES
|BATTERY TECHNOLOGY||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIESa||GROUP H OCCUPANCY|
|Flow batteriesb||600 kWh||Group H-2|
|Lead acid, all types||Unlimited||Not Applicable|
|Lithium, all types||600 kWh||Group H-2|
|Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd)||Unlimited||Not Applicable|
|Sodium, all types||600 kWh||Group H-2|
|Other battery technologies||200 kWh||Group H-2c|
For SI: 1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 megajoules.
- For batteries rated in amp-hours, Kilowatt-hours (kWh) shall equal rated battery voltage times the amp-hour rating divided by 1,000.
- Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte-type technologies.
- Shall be a Group H-4 occupancy if the fire code official determines that a fire or thermal runaway involving the battery technology does not represent a significant fire hazard.
1188.8.131.52 Mixed Battery Systems
Where areas within buildings contain different types of storage battery technologies, the total aggregate quantities of batteries shall be determined based on the sum of percentages of each battery type quantity divided by the maximum allowable quantity of each battery type. If the sum of the percentages exceeds 100 percent, the area shall be treated as a Group H occupancy in accordance with Table 1206.2.9.
1206.2.10 Storage Batteries and Equipment
The design and installation of storage batteries and related equipment shall comply with Sections 1184.108.40.206 through 1220.127.116.11.
Storage batteries and battery storage systems shall comply with the following:
- Storage batteries shall be listed in accordance with UL 1973.
- Prepackaged and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be listed in accordance with UL 9540.
Exception: Lead-acid batteries are not required to be listed.
118.104.22.168 Prepackaged and Preengineered Systems
Prepackaged and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
122.214.171.124 Energy Management System
An approved energy management system shall be provided for battery technologies other than lead-acid and nickel cadmium for monitoring and balancing cell voltages, currents and temperatures within the manufacturer's specifications. The system shall transmit an alarm signal to an approved location if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions such as short circuits, over voltage or under voltage are detected.
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