Section P2904 Dwelling Unit Fire Sprinkler Systems
The design and installation of residential fire sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 13D or Section P2904, which shall be considered to be equivalent to NFPA 13D. Partial residential sprinkler systems shall be permitted to be installed only in buildings not required to be equipped with a residential sprinkler system. Section P2904 shall apply to stand-alone and multipurpose wet-pipe sprinkler systems that do not include the use of antifreeze. A multipurpose fire sprinkler system shall provide domestic water to both fire sprinklers and plumbing fixtures. A stand-alone sprinkler system shall be separate and independent from the water distribution system. A backflow preventer shall not be required to separate a sprinkler system from the water distribution system, provided that the sprinkler system complies with all of the following:
Sprinklers shall be installed to protect all areas of a dwelling unit.
- Attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that do not contain fuel-fired appliances do not require sprinklers. In attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that contain fuel-fired equipment, a sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment; however, sprinklers shall not be required in the remainder of the space.
- Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries not exceeding 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area, with the smallest dimension not greater than 3 feet (915 mm) and having wall and ceiling surfaces of gypsum board.
- Bathrooms not more than 55 square feet (5.1 m2) in area.
- Garages; carports; exterior porches; unheated entry areas, such as mud rooms, that are adjacent to an exterior door; and similar areas.
Sprinklers shall have an intermediate temperature rating not less than 175°F (79°C) and not more than 225°F (107°C) where installed in the following locations:
- Directly under skylights, where the sprinkler is exposed to direct sunlight.
- In attics.
- In concealed spaces located directly beneath a roof.
- Within the distance to a heat source as specified in Table P2904.2.2.
LOCATIONS WHERE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIRED
|HEAT SOURCE||RANGE OF DISTANCE FROM HEAT SOURCE WITHIN WHICH|
INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIREDa, b (inches)
|Fireplace, side of open or recessed fireplace||12 to 36|
|Fireplace, front of recessed fireplace||36 to 60|
|Coal and wood burning stove||12 to 42|
|Kitchen range top||9 to 18|
|Oven||9 to 18|
|Vent connector or chimney connector||9 to 18|
|Heating duct, not insulated||9 to 18|
|Hot water pipe, not insulated||6 to 12|
|Side of ceiling or wall warm air register||12 to 24|
|Front of wall mounted warm air register||18 to 36|
|Water heater, furnace or boiler||3 to 6|
|Luminaire up to 250 watts||3 to 6|
|Luminaire 250 watts up to 499 watts||6 to 12|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
- Sprinklers shall not be located at distances less than the minimum table distance unless the sprinkler listing allows a lesser distance.
- Distances shall be measured in a straight line from the nearest edge of the heat source to the nearest edge of the sprinkler.
Sprinkler discharge shall not be blocked by obstructions unless additional sprinklers are installed to protect the obstructed area. Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the sprinkler separation from obstructions complies with either the minimum distance indicated in Figure P2904.2.4.2 or the minimum distances specified in the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions where the manufacturer's instructions permit a lesser distance.
Sprinkler piping shall be supported in accordance with requirements for cold water distribution piping. Sprinkler piping shall comply with the requirements for cold water distribution piping. For multipurpose piping systems, the sprinkler piping shall connect to and be a part of the cold water distribution piping system.
Exception: For plastic piping, it shall be permissible to follow the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Nonmetallic pipe and tubing systems shall be protected from exposure to the living space by a layer of not less than 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) gypsum wallboard, 1/2-inch-thick (13 mm) plywood, or other material having a 15-minute fire rating.
- Pipe protection shall not be required in areas that do not require protection with sprinklers as specified in Section P2904.1.1.
- Pipe protection shall not be required where exposed piping is permitted by the pipe listing.
The minimum required flow for each sprinkler shall be determined using the sprinkler manufacturer's published data for the specific sprinkler model based on all of the following:
- The area of coverage.
- The ceiling configuration.
- The temperature rating.
- Any additional conditions specified by the sprinkler manufacturer.
The design flow rate for the system shall be based on the following:
- The design flow rate for a room having only one sprinkler shall be the flow rate required for that sprinkler, as determined by Section P2904.4.1.
- The design flow rate for a room having two or more sprinklers a shall be determined by identifying the sprinkler in that room with the highest required flow rate, based on Section P2904.4.1, and multiplying that flow rate by 2.
- Where the sprinkler manufacturer specifies different criteria for ceiling configurations that are not smooth, flat and horizontal, the required flow rate for that room shall comply with the sprinkler manufacturer's instructions.
- The design flow rate for the sprinkler system shall be the flow required by the room with the largest flow rate, based on Items 1, 2 and 3.
- For the purpose of this section, it shall be permissible to reduce the design flow rate for a room by subdividing the space into two or more rooms, where each room is evaluated separately with respect to the required design flow rate. Each room shall be bounded by walls and a ceiling. Openings in walls shall have a lintel not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth and each lintel shall form a solid barrier between the ceiling and the top of the opening.
The water supply shall have the capacity to provide the required design flow rate for sprinklers for a period of time as follows:
- Seven minutes for dwelling units one story in height and less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.
- Ten minutes for dwelling units two or more stories in height or equal to or greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.
Where a well system, a water supply tank system or a combination thereof is used, any combination of well capacity and tank storage shall be permitted to meet the capacity requirement.