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Section 607 Duct and Transfer Openings

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[BF] 607.1 General
The provisions of this section shall govern the protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in assemblies required to be protected.
[BF] 607.1.1 Ducts Between Shafts
Ducts transitioning horizontally between shafts shall not require a shaft enclosure provided that the duct penetration into each associated shaft is protected with dampers complying with this section.
[BF] 607.1.2 Ducts That Penetrate Fire-Resistance-Rated Assemblies Without Dampers
Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated walls and are not required by this section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 714.3 through 714.4.3 of the International Building Code. Ducts that penetrate horizontal assemblies not required to be contained within a shaft and not required by this section to have fire dampers shall comply with the requirements of Section 714.5 of the International Building Code.
[BF] 607.1.2.1 Ducts That Penetrate Nonfire-Resistance-Rated Assemblies
The space around a duct penetrating a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall comply with Section 717.6.3 of the International Building Code.
[BF] 607.2 Installation
Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the dampers' listing and Sections 607.2.1 through 607.2.3.
[BF] 607.2.1 Smoke Control System
Where the installation of a fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909 of the International Building Code, approved alternative protection shall be used. Where mechanical systems including ducts and dampers used for normal building ventilation serve as part of the smoke control system, the expected performance of these systems in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the rational analysis required by Section 909.4 of the International Building Code.
607.2.2 Hazardous Exhaust Ducts
Fire dampers for hazardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with Section 510.
[BF] 607.2.3 Static Dampers
Fire dampers and ceiling radiation dampers that are listed for use in static systems shall be installed only in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems that are automatically shut down in the event of a fire.
[BF] 607.3 Damper Testing, Ratings and Actuation
Damper testing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 through 607.3.3.5.
[BF] 607.3.1 Damper Testing
Dampers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555C or shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. Corridor dampers shall comply with requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S. Corridor dampers shall demonstrate acceptable closure performance when subjected to 150 feet per minute (0.76 m/s) velocity across the face of the damper using the UL 555 fire exposure test.
[BF] 607.3.2 Damper Rating
Damper ratings shall be in accordance with Sections 607.3.2.1 through 607.3.2.4.
[BF] 607.3.2.1 Fire Damper Ratings
Fire dampers shall have the minimum rating specified in Table 607.3.2.1.

[BF] TABLE 607.3.2.1
TYPE OF PENETRATION MINIMUM DAMPER RATING (hour)
Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated assemblies 11/2
3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated assemblies 3
[BF] 607.3.2.2 Smoke Damper Ratings
Smoke damper leakage ratings shall be Class I or II. Elevated temperature ratings shall be not less than 250°F (121°C).
[BF] 607.3.2.3 Combination Fire/Smoke Damper Ratings
Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the minimum fire protection rating specified for fire dampers in Table 607.3.2.1 and shall have the minimum rating specified for smoke dampers in Section 607.3.2.2.
[BF] 607.3.2.4 Corridor Damper Ratings
Corridor dampers shall have the following minimum ratings:
  1. One-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. Class I or II leakage rating as specified in Section 607.3.2.2.
[BF] 607.3.3 Damper Actuation
Damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 607.3.3.1 through 607.3.3.5 as applicable.
[BF] 607.3.3.1 Fire Damper Actuation
Primary heat-responsive devices used to actuate fire dampers shall meet one of the following requirements:
  1. The operating temperature shall be approximately 50°F (28°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C).
  2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control system complying with Section 909 of the International Building Code.
[BF] 607.3.3.2 Smoke Damper Actuation
The smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3 of the International Building Code and one of the following methods, as applicable:
  1. Where a smoke damper is installed within a duct, a smoke detector shall be installed inside the duct or outside the duct with sampling tubes protruding into the duct. The detector or tubes within the duct shall be within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the damper. Air outlets and inlets shall not be located between the detector or tubes and the damper. The detector shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity anticipated at the point where it is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors require a minimum velocity to operate.
  2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector shall be installed on either side of the smoke barrier door opening. The detector shall be listed for releasing service if used for direct interface with the damper.
  3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an unducted opening in a wall, a spot-type detector shall be installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. The detector shall be listed for releasing service if used for direct interface with the damper.
  4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor wall or ceiling, the damper shall be permitted to be controlled by a smoke detection system installed in the corridor.
  5. Where a smoke detection system is installed in all areas served by the duct in which the damper will be located, the smoke dampers shall be permitted to be controlled by the smoke detection system.
[BF] 607.3.3.3 Combination Fire/Smoke Damper Actuation
Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 607.3.3.1 and 607.3.3.2. Combination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke control system shaft penetrations shall not be activated by local area smoke detection unless it is secondary to the smoke management system controls.
[BF] 607.3.3.4 Ceiling Radiation Damper Actuation
The operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper actuation device shall be 50°F (28°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C).
[BF] 607.3.3.5 Corridor Damper Actuation
Corridor damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 607.3.3.1 and 607.3.3.2.
[BF] 607.4 Access and Identification
Access and identification of fire and smoke dampers shall comply with Sections 607.4.1 through 607.4.2.
[BF] 607.4.1 Access
Fire and smoke dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access that is large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. Dampers equipped with fusible links, internal operators or both shall be provided with an access door that is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) square or provided with a removable duct section.
[BF] 607.4.1.1 Fire-Resistance Rating
The access shall not affect the integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access openings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.
[BF] 607.4.1.2 Restricted Access
Where space constraints or physical barriers restrict access to a damper for periodic inspection and testing, the damper shall be a single- or multi-blade damper and shall comply with the remote inspection requirements of NFPA 80 or NFPA 105.
[BF] 607.4.2 Identification
Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label having letters not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER.
[BF] 607.5 Where Required
Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers, ceiling radiation dampers and corridor dampers shall be provided at the locations prescribed in Sections 607.5.1 through 607.5.7. Where an assembly is required to have both fire dampers and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and smoke damper shall be provided.
[BF] 607.5.1 Fire Walls
Ducts and air transfer openings permitted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.11 of the International Building Code shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.
[BF] 607.5.1.1 Horizontal Exits
A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point that a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire wall that serves as a horizontal exit.
[BF] 607.5.2 Fire Barriers
Ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire barriers shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways except as permitted by Sections 1023.5 and 1024.6, respectively, of the International Building Code
Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of fire barriers where any of the following apply:
  1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly.
  2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 513 and where the fire damper would interfere with the operation of the smoke control system.
  3. Such walls are penetrated by fully ducted HVAC systems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and are in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 of the International Building Code. For the purposes of this exception, a fully ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than 26 gage [0.0217 inch (0.55 mm)] thickness and shall be continuous from the air-handling appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet terminals. Flexible air connectors shall be permitted in a fully ducted system, limited to the following installations:
    3.1.  Nonmetallic flexible connections that connect a duct to an air handling unit or equipment located within a mechanical room in accordance with Section 603.9.
    3.2.  Nonmetallic flexible air connectors in accordance with Section 603.6.2 that connect an overhead metal duct to a ceiling diffuser where the metal duct and ceiling diffuser are located within the same room.
[BF] 607.5.2.1 Horizontal Exits
A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point that a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit.
[BF] 607.5.3 Fire Partitions
Ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.
Exception: In occupancies other than Group H, fire dampers are not required where any of the following apply:
  1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 of the International Building Code and the duct is protected as a through penetration in accordance with Section 714 of the International Building Code.
  2. The partitions are tenant partitions in covered and open mall buildings where the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere in the International Building Code to extend to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above.
  3. The duct system is constructed of approved materials in accordance with Section 603 and the duct penetrating the wall complies with all of the following requirements:
    3.1.  The duct shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.06 m2).
    3.2.  The duct shall be constructed of steel not less than 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in thickness.
    3.3.  The duct shall not have openings that communicate the corridor with adjacent spaces or rooms.
    3.4.  The duct shall be installed above a ceiling.
    3.5.  The duct shall not terminate at a wall register in the fire-resistance-rated wall.
    3.6.  A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve shall be centered in each duct opening. The sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the wall and all four sides of the sleeve with minimum 11/2-inch by 11/2-inch by 0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular space between the steel sleeve and the wall opening shall be filled with rock (mineral) wool batting on all sides.
  4. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC systems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less, and are in areas of other than Group H and are in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 of the International Building Code. For the purposes of this exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than 26 gage in thickness and shall be continuous from the air-handling appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet terminals.
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