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When the site is 15 km (9.3 miles) or closer to a seismic source that can significantly affect the site, near-fault directivity effects shall be reflected in the spectral acceleration values and in the deterministic spectral acceleration values of Section 3103F.4.2.7.
Two methods are available for incorporating directivity effects:
  1. Directivity effects may be reflected in the spectral acceleration values in a deterministic manner by using well established procedures such as that described in Somerville, et al. [3.4]. The critical seismic sources and their characterization developed as part of the deterministic ground motion parameters (Section 3103F.4.2.7) should be used to evaluate the directivity effects. The resulting adjustments in spectral acceleration values may be applied in the probabilistic spectral acceleration values developed per Section 3103F.4.2.4 or 3103F.4.2.5. Such adjustment can be independent of the probability levels of spectral accelerations.
  2. Directivity effects may be incorporated in the results of site specific PSHA per Section 3103F.4.2.3. In this case, the directivity effects will also depend on the probability level of spectral accelerations.
If spectral accelerations are obtained in this manner, the effects of site amplification using either Section 3103F.4.2.4, 3103F.4.2.5 or an equivalent method (if justified) shall be incorporated.

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