Joints between copper pipe, tubing, or fittings shall be installed in accordance with one of the following methods:
- Brazed joints between copper or copper alloy pipe, tubing, or fittings shall be made with brazing alloys having a liquid temperature above 1000°F (538°C). The joint surfaces to be brazed shall be cleaned bright by either manual or mechanical means. Tubing shall be cut square and reamed to full inside diameter. Brazing flux shall be applied to the joint surfaces where required by manufacturer's recommendation. Brazing filler metal in accordance with AWS A5.8 shall be applied at the point where the pipe or tubing enters the socket of the fitting.
- Flared joints for soft copper or copper alloy tubing shall be made with fittings that are in accordance with the applicable standards referenced in Table 1210.1. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square using an appropriate tubing cutter. The tubing shall be reamed to full inside diameter, resized to round, and expanded with a proper flaring tool.
- Mechanically formed tee fittings shall have extracted collars that shall be formed in a continuous operation consisting of drilling a pilot hole and drawing out the pipe or tube surface to form a collar having a height not less than three times the thickness of the branch tube wall. The branch pipe or tube shall be notched to conform to the inner curve of the run pipe or tube and shall have two dimple depth stops to ensure that penetration of the branch pipe or tube into the collar is of a depth for brazing and that the branch pipe or tube does not obstruct the flow in the main line pipe or tube. Dimple depth stops shall be in line with the run of the pipe or tube. The second dimple shall be 1/4 of an inch (6.4 mm) above the first and shall serve as a visual point of inspection. Fittings and joints shall be made by brazing. Soldered joints shall not be permitted.
- Pressed fittings for copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall have an elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. The pipe or tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the pipe or tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the pipe or tubing to ensure the pipe or tubing is inserted into the fitting. The joint shall be pressed using the tool recommended by the manufacturer.
- Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings for copper or copper alloy tubing or pipe that employ quick assembly push fit connectors shall be in accordance with ASSE 1061. Push fit fittings for copper pipe or tubing shall have an approved elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the tubing to ensure the tubing is inserted into the fitting and gripping mechanism has engaged on the pipe.
- Soldered joints between copper or copper alloy pipe, tubing, or fittings shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square and reamed to the full inside diameter including the removal of burrs on the outside of the pipe or tubing. Surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned bright by manual or mechanical means. Flux shall be applied to pipe or tubing and fittings and shall be in accordance with ASTM B813, and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. Insert pipe or tubing into the base of the fitting and remove excess flux. Pipe or tubing and fitting shall be supported to ensure a uniform capillary space around the joint. Solder in accordance with ASTM B32 shall be applied to the joint surfaces until capillary action draws the molten solder into the cup. Joint surfaces shall not be disturbed until cool and any remaining flux residue shall be cleaned.
- Threaded joints for copper or copper alloy pipe shall be made with pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only on male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.