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Concrete formwork shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sections 3305.3.1 through 3305.3.7.
3305.3.1 General Requirements
The design, fabrication and erection of forms shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3305.3.1.1 through 3305.3.1.6.
3305.3.1.1 Safe Support of Loads
Formwork, including all related braces, shoring, framing, and auxiliary construction, shall be proportioned, erected, supported, braced, and maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that might be applied until such loads can be supported by the permanent construction.
3305.3.1.2 Vertical and Lateral Loads
Vertical and lateral loads shall be carried to the ground by the formwork system, by the new construction after it has attained adequate strength for that purpose, or by existing structures. Forms and their supports shall be designed so as not to damage previously placed structures.
3305.3.1.2.1 Use of Existing Structures to Support Vertical or Lateral Loads
The use of existing structures to support vertical or lateral loads imposed by concrete construction operations shall require an evaluation by a registered design professional of the adequacy of the existing structure to support the loads to be imposed. The registered design professional shall prepare design drawings documenting the findings of the evaluation, indicate the location of formwork elements, and the interface between the formwork and the existing structure. Concrete operations that utilize a stay form adjacent to a party wall, that place concrete against insulation in a seismic gap, or that utilize similar methods shall be assumed to impose a load on an existing structure, and shall always require an evaluation by a registered design professional in accordance with the requirements of this section.
3305.3.1.3 Bracing
Forms shall be properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape, and shall conform to the sizes and shapes of members as shown on the design drawings.
3305.3.1.4 Ramps, Runways and Platforms
Ramps, runways, and platforms utilized in connection with concrete placement shall comply with Section 3315.
3305.3.1.5 Design
Concrete formwork shall be designed in accordance with Section 3305.3.2.
3305.3.1.6 Forms for Prestressed and Post-Tensioned Concrete
Forms for prestressed and post-tensioned concrete members shall be designed and constructed to permit movement of the member without damage during application of the prestressing or post-tensioning forces, or during installation of the prestressing steel.
3305.3.2 Design of Concrete Formwork
Design of formwork, including but not limited to forms, proprietary formwork products, shores, and shoring foundations, shall comply with ACI 318, Section 26.11, and the requirements of Sections 3305.3.2.1 through 3305.3.2.8 of this code.
3305.3.2.1 Design Drawings
Site-specific formwork design drawings prepared by a registered design professional shall be required in the following cases:
  1. For concrete formwork in a structure classified as a major building;
  2. Wherever the shore or form height exceeds 14 feet (4267 mm);
  3. Wherever the total vertical load on the forms exceeds 150 pounds per square foot (732 kg/m2);
  4. Wherever power buggies are used;
  5. Wherever multi-stage shores are used;
  6. Wherever the slab thicknesses or beam heights equal or exceed 10 inches (254 mm);
  7. Wherever there are concentrated loads exceeding 2000 pounds (907 kg) imposed on the formwork; or
  8. Wherever there are loads imposed on existing structures in accordance with Section 3305.3.1.2.1.
Exception: Design drawings prepared by a registered design professional are not required for formwork installed in conjunction with slabs supported directly on grade or footings where such slab or footing does not impart any load on an adjacent structure.
3305.3.2.2 Vertical Loads
Vertical loads shall include the total dead and live loads. Dead load shall include the weight of the formwork plus the weight of the reinforcement and fresh concrete. Live load shall allow for the weight of the workers and equipment, with allowance for impact, but in no case shall be less than 20 pounds per square foot (98 kg/m2).
3305.3.2.3 Lateral Concrete Pressure
Design of forms, ties and bracing shall satisfy the minimum lateral pressures of fresh concrete specified in Table 3305.3.2.3. Maximum rate of placement shall be shown on the design drawings. 
TABLE 3305.3.2.3
MINIMUM LATERAL PRESSURES TO BE ASSUMED FOR FRESH CONCRETE WEIGHING 150 POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT a, b, c
TYPE OF WORK
MINIMUM LATERAL PRESSURE ASSUMED (PSF)
LIMITATIONS
Columns: Ordinary work with normal internal vibration
p = 150 + (9000R/T)
Maximum 3,000 psf or 150h, whichever is less
Walls: Rate of placement at 7 feet per hour or less
p = 150 + (9000R/T)
Maximum 2,000 psf or 150h, whichever is less
Walls: Rate of placement at greater than 7 feet per hour
p = 150 + (43400/T) + (2800R/T)
Maximum 2,000 psf or 150h, whichever is less
Slabs
p = 150h
None

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3, 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, °C = (°F-32)/1.8.
 
where:
R = rate of placement, feet per hour.
T = temperature of concrete in the forms, °F.
h = height of fresh concrete above point considered, feet.
 
a. Allowances for change in lateral pressure shall be made for concrete weighing other than 150 pcf; for concrete containing pozzolanic additions or cements other than Type I, for concrete having slumps greater than 6 inches, or for concrete consolidated by revibration or external vibration of forms.
b. Where retarding admixtures are employed under hot weather conditions, an effective value of temperature less than that of the concrete in the forms shall be used in the above formula.
c. If retarding admixtures are used in cold weather, the lateral pressure may be assumed as that exerted by a fluid weighing 150 pcf.
3305.3.2.4 External Loads
Braces and shores shall be designed to resist all external loads, including, but not limited to, wind, cable tensions, inclined supports, dumping of concrete, and starting and stopping of equipment. In no case shall the assumed value of lateral load acting in any direction at each floorline be less than 100 plf applied along the edge or 2 percent of total dead load of the floor, whichever is greater. Except for foundation walls that are poured against a rigid backing, wall forms shall be designed for a minimum lateral load of 10 pounds per square foot (49 kg/m2), and bracing for wall forms shall be designed for a lateral load of at least 100 pounds per linear foot (148.8 kilograms per linear meter) of wall, applied at the top. The lateral load acting on walls greater than 14 feet (4267 mm) high shall be determined by analysis of conditions applicable to the site and building.
3305.3.2.5 Special Loads
The formwork shall be designed for any special conditions of construction likely to occur, such as asymmetrical placement of concrete, impact of machine-delivered concrete, uplift and concentrated loads.
3305.3.2.6 Shoring and Bracing
Shoring and bracing shall comply with Sections 3305.3.2.6.1 through 3305.3.2.6.4.
3305.3.2.6.1 Approval
When patented or commercial devices that are not susceptible to design are used for shoring, bracing, or splicing, they shall be approved by the commissioner.
3305.3.2.6.2 Splices
Splices shall develop the full strength of the spliced members.
3305.3.2.6.3 Bracing
Where shore height exceeds 10 feet (3048 mm), or when necessary to provide structural stability, diagonal bracing shall be provided. Struts, anchored into masonry or to panel joints of adjacent braced bays may be used to prevent buckling of individual members not supported by the diagonal bracing, but bracing an entire tier of shores with struts without diagonal bracing shall be prohibited unless the system can be demonstrated to be braced by other rigid construction.
3305.3.2.6.4 Unbraced Length of Shores
The unbraced length of shores shall not exceed the maximum length determined in accordance with the requirements of this code for the structural material used.
3305.3.2.7 Foundations
Foundations for shores more than 10 feet (3048 mm) high and supported on the ground shall be designed by a registered design professional.
3305.3.2.8 Settlement
Formwork shall be so constructed that vertical adjustments can be made to compensate for take-up and settlements. Wedges, jacks or other positive means shall be provided for this purpose.
3305.3.3 Formwork Inspection and Observation
Formwork shall be inspected and observed in accordance with the requirements of Sections 3305.3.3.1 through 3305.3.3.3.
3305.3.3.1 Inspection by Contractor
Formwork, including shores, reshores, braces and other supports, shall be inspected prior to placement of reinforcing steel to verify the adequacy and proper installation of the formwork, and where construction documents and form design drawings are provided, that the formwork conforms to the construction documents and form design drawings. Subsequently, during and after concreting, periodic inspections shall be performed to detect incipient problems, and the elevations, camber, and vertical alignment of formwork systems shall be inspected using tell-tale devices. Such inspections shall be performed by a qualified person designated by the contractor; nothing shall prohibit the concrete safety manager from performing such inspection where so designated. The results of such inspections shall be documented in an inspection report signed and dated by the qualified person who performed the inspection. The names of the persons responsible for such inspections and the foreman in charge of the formwork shall be posted in the field office.
3305.3.3.2 Formwork Observation
In addition to the inspections by the contractor required pursuant to Section 3305.3.3.1, visual observations of the formwork for the general conformance with the design intent shall be performed by:
  1. The formwork designer;
  2. An employee of the formwork designer under his or her direct supervision;
  3. A registered design professional retained by the formwork designer; or
  4. An employee of such retained registered design professional under the direct supervision of such retained registered design professional.
Exceptions: Formwork observation pursuant to Section 3305.3.3.2 shall not be required for:
  1. Formwork that does not require design drawings pursuant to Section 3305.3.2.1; and
  2. One- two- and three-family dwellings and accessory uses to such buildings.
3305.3.3.2.1 Intervals
Formwork shall be observed at intervals permitting observation of representative configurations throughout the project duration. The formwork designer shall maintain a log of such observations at the construction site. At a minimum, observations shall be made:
  1. Immediately after formwork related incidents or violations are issued; and
  2. When concrete construction operations are significantly modified such as changes to form materials, concrete placement cycle, or form and support layout prior to use of the change.
3305.3.3.2.2 Discrepancies From the Formwork Design
Where the individual performing the formwork observation pursuant to Section 3305.3.3.2 discovers a discrepancy from the formwork design, such discrepancy shall be immediately brought to the attention of the concrete contractor. The concrete contractor shall be responsible for correcting the discrepancy. In addition, the site safety manager, site safety coordinator, and concrete safety manager, as applicable, shall be notified of discrepancies from the formwork design that relate to site safety. Follow-up observations to confirm corrective action has been taken shall be made by the formwork designer or his or her qualified designee pursuant to Section 3305.3.3.2.
3305.3.3.2.3 Hazardous Formwork Conditions
Where an observed formwork condition hazardous to life, safety, or health is not immediately corrected by the responsible contractor, the formwork designer or his or her qualified designee pursuant to Section 3305.3.3.2 shall immediately report such hazardous formwork condition and such failure to correct the hazardous formwork condition to the commissioner.
3305.3.3.3 Special Inspection
The requirements of Chapter 17 shall apply.
3305.3.4 Construction
Concrete formwork, including but not limited to forms, shores, and shoring foundations, shall be constructed in conformance with the design drawings, where such drawings are required by Section 3305.3.2.1, and shall also be constructed to comply with the requirements of Sections 3305.3.4.1 through 3305.3.4.5.
3305.3.4.1 Field-Constructed Lap Splices
Field-constructed lap splices, other than approved devices, shall not be used more often than for every other shore under slabs or for every third shore under beams and shall develop the full strength of the members. Such spliced shores shall be uniformly distributed throughout the work. Splices shall not be located near the midheight of the shores unless lateral support is provided, nor midway between points of lateral support.
3305.3.4.2 Vertical Shores
Vertical shores incorporated in multi-stage shores shall be set plumb and in alignment with lower tiers so that loads from upper tiers are transferred directly to the lower tiers, or adequate transfer members shall be provided. Provision shall be made to transfer the lateral loads to the ground or to completed construction of adequate strength. Vertical shores shall be so erected that they cannot tilt, and shall have firm bearing. Inclined shores and the bearing ends of all shores shall be braced against slipping or sliding. The bearing surfaces shall be cut square and have a tight fit at splices.
3305.3.4.3 Runways
Runways for moving equipment shall be provided with struts or legs as required and shall be supported directly on the formwork or structural member and not on the reinforcement.
3305.3.4.4 Unsafe Conditions
Any unsafe condition or necessary adjustment revealed by inspection shall be remedied immediately. If, during construction, any weakness develops and the formwork shows any undue settlement or distortion, the work shall be stopped, the affected construction removed if permanently damaged, and the formwork strengthened.
3305.3.4.5 Formwork Interconnection
Horizontal formwork deck panels and beam formwork shall be positively connected to all formwork support systems. Connections located within 16 feet (4877 mm) from the building perimeter shall be installed continuously throughout the day as the formwork is installed and shall be in place prior to the end of the shift.
3305.3.5 Removal of Forms and Shoring
The removal of forms and shoring shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3305.3.5.1 through 3305.3.5.6.
3305.3.5.1 Removal Schedule
Before starting construction, the contractor shall develop a procedure and schedule for removal of shores and installation of reshores and for calculating the loads transferred to the structure during the process.
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