19.3 Concrete Durability Requirements
Table 184.108.40.206—Exposure categories and classes
|Freezing and thawing (F)||F0||Concrete not exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles|
|F1||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with limited exposure to water|
|F2||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water|
|F3||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water and exposure to deicing chemicals|
|Sulfate (S)||Water-soluble sulfate (SO42-) in soil, percent by mass||Dissolved sulfate (SO42-) in water, ppm|
|S0||SO42-< 0.10||SO42-< 150|
|S1||0.10 ≤ SO42-< 0.20||150 ≤ SO42-< 1500 or seawater|
|S2||0.20 ≤ SO42-≤ 2.00||1500 ≤ SO42-≤ 10,000|
|In contact with water (W)||W0||Concrete dry in service
Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is not required
|W1||Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is required|
|Corrosion protection of reinforcement (C)||C0||Concrete dry or protected from moisture|
|C1||Concrete exposed to moisture but not to an external source of chlorides|
|C2||Concrete exposed to moisture and an external source of chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, brackish water, seawater, or spray from these sources|
Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined by ASTM C1580.
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water, in ppm, shall be determined by ASTM D516 or ASTM D4130.
|Exposure class||Maximum w/cm||Minimum fc' psi||Additional requirements||Limits on cementitious materials|
|Cementitious materials — Types||Calcium chloride admixture|
|ASTM C150||ASTM C595||ASTM C1157|
|S0||N/A||2500||No type restriction||No type restriction||No type restriction||No restriction|
|S1||0.50||4000||II||Types IP, IS, or IT with (MS) designation||MS||No restriction|
|S2||0.45||4500||V||Types IP, IS, or IT with (HS) designation||HS||Not permitted|
|S3||0.45||4500||V plus pozzolan or slag cement||Types IP, IS, or IT with (HS) designation plus pozzolan or slag cement||HS plus pozzolan or slag cement||Not permitted|
|Maximum water-soluble chloride ion (Cl—) content in concrete, percent by weight of cement||Additional provisions|
|Nonprestressed concrete||Prestressed concrete|
The maximum w/cm limits in Table 220.127.116.11 do not apply to lightweight concrete.
For plain concrete, the maximum w/cm shall be 0.45 and the minimum fc' shall be 4500 psi.
For seawater exposure, other types of portland cements with tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contents up to 10 percent are permitted if the w/cm does not exceed 0.40.
Other available types of cement such as Type I or Type III are permitted in Exposure Classes S1 or S2 if the C3A contents are less than 8 percent for Exposure Class S1 or less than 5 percent for Exposure Class S2.
The amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount that has been determined by service record to improve sulfate resistance when used in concrete containing Type V cement. Alternatively, the amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount tested in accordance with ASTM C1012 and meeting the criteria in 18.104.22.168(c).
Water-soluble chloride ion content that is contributed from the ingredients including water, aggregates, cementitious materials, and admixtures shall be determined on the concrete mixture by ASTM C1218 at age between 28 and 42 days.
|Nominal maximum aggregate size, in.||Target air content, percent|
|F1||F2 and F3|