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Section N1102 (R402) Building Thermal Envelope
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The building thermal envelope shall comply with the requirements of Sections N1102.1.1 through N1102.1.5.
- The following low-energy buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section N1102.
- Log homes designed in accordance with ICC 400.
The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table N1102.1.2 based on the climate zone specified in Section N1101.7.
INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa
|3||0.32||0.55||0.25||38||20 or 13 + 5h||8/13||19||5/13f||0||5/13|
|4 except |
|0.32||0.55||0.40||49||20 or 13 + 5h||8/13||19||10/13||10, 2 ft||10/13|
|0.30||0.55||NR||49||20 or 13 + 5h||13/17||30g||15/19||10, 2 ft||15/19|
|6||0.30||0.55||NR||49||20 + 5h or 13 + 10h||15/20||30g||15/19||10, 4 ft||15/19|
|7 and 8||0.30||0.55||NR||49||20 + 5h or 13 + 10h||19/21||38g||15/19||10, 4 ft||15/19|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NR = Not Required.
- R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. Where insulation is installed in a cavity that is less than the label or design thickness of the insulation, the installed R-value of the insulation shall be not less than the R-value specified in the table.
- The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
- "10/13" means R-10 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall. "15/19" means R-15 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home or R-19 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall. Alternatively, compliance with "15/19" shall be R-13 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall plus R-5 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home.
- R-5 insulation shall be provided under the full slab area of a heated slab in addition to the required slab edge insulation R-value for slabs. as indicated in the table. The slab edge insulation for heated slabs shall not be required to extend below the slab.
- There are no SHGC requirements in the Marine Zone.
- Basement wall insulation shall not be required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure N1101.7 and Table N1101.7.
- Alternatively, insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity providing not less than an R-value of R-19.
- The first value is cavity insulation, the second value is continuous insulation. Therefore, as an example, "13+5" means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 continuous insulation.
- Mass walls shall be in accordance with Section N1102.2.5. The second R-value applies where more than half of the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.
Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation or continuous insulation, shall be summed to compute the corresponding component R-value. The manufacturer's settled R-value shall be used for blown-in insulation. Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films. Where insulated siding is used for the purpose of complying with the continuous insulation requirements of Table N1102.1.2, the manufacturer's labeled R-value for insulated siding shall be reduced by R-0.6.
An assembly with a U-factor equal to or less than that specified in Table N1102.1.4 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table N1102.1.2.
TABLE N1102.1.4 (R402.1.4)
|MASS WALL |
|4 except Marine||0.32||0.55||0.026||0.060||0.098||0.047||0.059||0.065|
|5 and Marine 4||0.30||0.55||0.026||0.060||0.082||0.033||0.050||0.055|
|7 and 8||0.30||0.55||0.026||0.045||0.057||0.028||0.050||0.055|
- Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source.
- Mass walls shall be in accordance with Section N1102.2.5. Where more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors shall not exceed 0.17 in Climate Zone 1, 0.14 in Climate Zone 2, 0.12 in Climate Zone 3, 0.087 in Climate Zone 4 except Marine, 0.065 in Climate Zone 5 and Marine 4, and 0.057 in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
- In warm-humid locations as defined by Figure N1101.7 and Table N1101.7, the basement wall U-factor shall not exceed 0.360.
Where the total building thermal envelope UA, the sum of U-factor times assembly area, is less than or equal to the Total UA resulting from multiplying the U-factors in Table N1102.1.4 by the same assembly area as in the proposed building, the building shall be considered to be in compliance with Table N1102.1.2. The UA calculation shall be performed using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials. In addition to UA compliance, SHGC requirements shall be met.
Where Section R1102.1.2 requires R-38 insulation in the ceiling, installing R-30 insulation over 100 percent of the ceiling area requiring insulation shall satisfy the requirement for R-38 insulation wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Where Section N1102.1.2 requires R-49 insulation in the ceiling, installing R-38 insulation over 100 percent of the ceiling area requiring insulation shall satisfy the requirement for R-49 insulation wherever the full height of uncompressed R-38 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section N1102.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.
Where Section N1102.1.2 requires insulation R-values greater than R-30 in the ceiling and the design of the roof/ceiling assembly does not allow sufficient space for the required insulation, the minimum required insulation R-value for such roof/ceiling assemblies shall be R-30. Insulation shall extend over the top of the wall plate to the outer edge of such plate and shall not be compressed. This reduction of insulation from the requirements of Section N1102.1.2 shall be limited to 500 square feet (46 m2) or 20 percent of the total insulated ceiling area, whichever is less. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section N1102.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.
For air-permeable insulations in vented attics, a baffle shall be installed adjacent to soffit and eave vents. Baffles shall maintain an opening equal or greater than the size of the vent. The baffle shall extend over the top of the attic insulation. The baffle shall be permitted to be any solid material.
Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation shall be provided to all equipment. Where loose-fill insulation is installed, a wood-framed or equivalent baffle or retainer shall be installed to prevent the loose-fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened. The baffle or retainer shall provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose-fill insulation.
Mass walls where used as a component of the building thermal envelope shall be one of the following:
Steel-frame ceilings, walls, and floors shall comply with the insulation requirements of Table N1102.2.6 or the U-factor requirements of Table N1102.1.4. The calculation of the U-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method.
TABLE N1102.2.6 (R402.2.6)
STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION R-VALUES
|WOOD FRAME |
|Steel Truss Ceilingsb|
|R-30||R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5|
|R-38||R-49 or R-38 + 3|
|R-49||R-38 + 5|
|Steel Joist Ceilingsb|
|R-30||R-38 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 R-49|
in any framing
|R-38||R-49 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 or 2 × 10|
|Steel-Framed Wall, 16 inches on center|
|R-13||R-13 + 4.2 or R-21 + 2.8 or|
R-0 + 9.3 or R-15 + 3.8 or R-21 + 3.1
|R-13 + 3||R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 6.1 or R-15 + 5.7 or|
R-19 + 5.0 or R-21 + 4.7
|R-20||R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 8.9 or R-15 + 8.5 or|
R-19 + 7.8 or R-19 + 6.2 or R-21 + 7.5
|R-20 + 5||R-13 + 12.7 or R-15 + 12.3 or R-19 + 11.6 or|
R-21 + 11.3 or R-25 + 10.9
|R-21||R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 9.5 or R-15 + 9.1 or|
R-19 + 8.4 or R-21 + 8.1 or R-25 + 7.7
|Steel-Framed Wall, 24 inches on center|
|R-13||R-0 + 9.3 or R-13 + 3.0 or R-15 + 2.4|
|R-13 + 3||R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 4.9 or R-15 + 4.3 or|
R-19 + 3.5 or R-21 + 3.1
|R-20||R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 7.7 or R-15 + 7.1 or|
R-19 + 6.3 or R-21 + 5.9
|R-20 + 5||R-13 + 11.5 or R-15 + 10.9 or R-19 + 10.1 or|
R-21 + 9.7 or R-25 + 9.1
|R-21||R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 8.3 or R-15 + 7.7 or|
R-19 + 6.9 or R-21 + 6.5 or R-25 + 5.9
|Steel Joist Floor|
|R-13||R-19 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 6 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10|
|R-19||R-19 + 6 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 12 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10|
Where Section N1102.1.2 requires continuous insulation on exterior walls and structural sheathing covers 40 percent or less of the gross area of all exterior walls, the required continuous insulation R-value shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount necessary, but not more than R-3, to result in a consistent total sheathing thickness on areas of the walls covered by structural sheathing. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative in Section N1102.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.
Floor framing-cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking.
Exception: As an alternative, the floor framing-cavity insulation shall be in contact with the topside of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor framing where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum wood frame wall R-value in Table N1102.1.2 and that extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members.
Walls associated with conditioned basements shall be insulated from the top of the basement wall down to 10 feet (3048 mm) below grade or to the basement floor, whichever is less. Walls associated with unconditioned basements shall comply with this requirement except where the floor overhead is insulated in accordance with Sections N1102.1.2 and N1102.2.8.
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