All buildings, docks, tramways, walkways, log dumps, and other structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as to support the imposed load in accordance with a safety factor.
Work areas under mills shall be as evenly surfaced as local conditions permit. They shall be free from unnecessary obstructions and provided with lighting facilities in accordance with American National Standard for Industrial Lighting A11.1—1965, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Flooring in buildings and on ramps and walkways shall be constructed and installed in accordance with established principles of mechanics and sound engineering practices. They shall be of adequate strength to support the estimated or actual dead and live loads acting on them with the resultant stress not exceeding the allowable stress for the material being used.
The flooring of buildings, docks, and passageways shall be kept in good repair. When a hazardous condition develops that cannot be immediately repaired, the area shall be guarded until adequate repairs are made.
Floors, footwalks, and passageways in the work area around machines or other places where a person is required to stand or walk shall be provided with effective means to minimize slipping.
Areas under floor openings shall, where practical, be fenced off. When this is not practical, they shall be plainly marked and telltales shall be installed to hang over these areas.
Walkways, docks, and platforms shall be of sufficient width to provide adequate passage and working areas.
Docks and runways used for the operation of lift trucks and other vehicles shall have a substantial guard or shear timber except where loading and unloading are being performed.
All elevated walks, runways, or platforms, if 4 feet or more from the floor level, shall be provided with a standard railing except on loading or unloading sides of platforms. If height exceeds 6 feet, a standard toe board also shall be provided to prevent material from rolling or falling off.
Where elevated platforms are used routinely on a daily basis, they shall be equipped with stairways or fixed ladders that comply with subpart D of this part.
Where required, walkways and stairways with standard handrails shall be provided in elevated and hazardous locations. Where such passageways are over walkways or work areas, standard toe boards shall be provided.
Walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair.
Stairways shall be constructed in accordance with subpart D of this part.
All stairways shall be adequately lighted as prescribed in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.
Stairways shall be provided with a standard handrail on at least one side or on any open side. Where stairs are more than four feet wide there shall be a standard handrail at each side, and where more than eight feet wide, a third standard handrail shall be erected in the center of the stairway.
Doors shall not open directly on or block a flight of stairs, and shall swing in the direction of exit travel.
All swinging doors shall be provided with windows; with one window for each section of double swinging doors. Such windows shall be of shatterproof or safety glass unless otherwise protected against breakage.
Where sliding doors are used as exits, an inner door shall be cut inside each of the main doors and arranged to open outward.
Where a doorway opens upon a railroad track or upon a tramway or dock over which vehicles travel, a barrier or other warning device shall be placed to prevent workmen from stepping into moving traffic.
Exits shall be located and identified in a manner that affords ready exit from all work areas.
Ventilation shall be provided to supply adequate fresh healthful air to rooms, buildings, and work areas.
All open vats and tanks into which workmen could fall shall be guarded.
Illumination shall be provided and designed to supply adequate general and local lighting to rooms, buildings, and work areas during the time of use.
Factors upon which the adequacy and effectiveness of illumination will be judged, include the following:
The quantity of light in foot-candle intensity shall be sufficient for the work being done.
The quality of the light shall be such that it is free from glare, and has correct direction, diffusion, and distribution.
Shadows and extreme contrasts shall be avoided or kept to a minimum.
Physical hazard marking shall be as specified in §1910.144 of this part.
Means shall be provided to block, chain, or otherwise secure equipment normally supported by hydraulic pressure so as to provide for safe maintenance.
All gas piping and appliances shall be installed in accordance with the American National Standard Requirements for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Z21.30—1964, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyors shall be in accordance with American National Standard B20.1—1957, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Spiked live rolls shall be guarded.
Tramways and trestles shall have substantial mud sills or foundations which shall be frequently inspected and kept in repair. When vehicles are operated on tramways and trestles which are used for foot passage, traffic shall be controlled or a walkway with standard handrails at the outer edge and shear timber on the inner edge shall be provided. This walkway shall be wide enough to allow adequate clearance to vehicles. When walkways cross over other thoroughfares, they shall be solidly fenced at the outer edge to a height of 42 inches over such thoroughfares.
Stationary tramways and trestles shall have a vertical clearance of 22 feet over railroad rails. When constructed over carrier docks or roads, they shall have a clearance of 6 feet above the driver's foot rest on the carrier, and in no event shall this clearance be less than 12 feet from the roadway. In existing operations where it is impractical to obtain such clearance, telltales, electric signals, signs or other precautionary measures shall be installed.
Blower collecting, and exhaust systems should be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1—1961 (For the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying) and Z12.2—1962 (R1969) (Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosion in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants), which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.
Exhaust pipes shall not discharge into an unconfined outside pile if uncontrolled fire or explosion hazards are created. They may empty into settling or dust chambers, designed to prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area. Such chambers shall be constructed and operated to minimize the danger of fire or dust explosion.
Provision for the daily removal of refuse shall be made in all operations not required to have an exhaust system or having refuse too heavy, bulky, or otherwise unsuitable to be handled by the exhaust system.
All mills containing one or more machines that create dust, shavings, chips, or slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than one-fourth of the working day, shall be equipped with a collecting system. It may be either continuous or automatic, and shall be of sufficient strength and capacity to enable it to remove such refuse from points of operation and immediate vicinities of machines and work areas.
The feed system to the chipper shall be arranged so the operator does not stand in direct line with the chipper spout (hopper). The chipper spout shall be enclosed to a height of not less than 36 inches from the floor or the operator's platform. A safety belt and lifeline shall be worn by workmen when working at or near the spout unless the spout is guarded. The lifeline shall be short enough to prevent workers from falling into the chipper.
Hog mills shall be so designed and arranged that from no position on the rim of the chute shall the distance to the cutter knives be less than 40 inches.
Hog feed chutes shall be provided with suitable and approved baffles, which shall minimize material from being thrown from the mill.
Employees feeding hog mills shall be provided with safety belts and lines unless guarded.
Open bins, bunkers, and hoppers whose upper edges extend less than 3 feet above working level shall be equipped with standard handrails and toe boards, or have their tops covered by a substantial grill or grating with openings small enough to prevent a man from falling through.
Fuel houses and bins shall have adequate exits and lighting, and all necessary safety devices shall be provided and shall be used by persons entering these structures.
Where needed, fuel houses and bins shall have a standard railed platform or walkway near the top.
Where automotive or other wheeled equipment is used to move materials into bins, bunkers, and hoppers, adequate guard rails shall be installed along each side of the runway, and a substantial bumper stop provided when necessary.
Ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be used in accordance with safe use practices recommended by the manufacturer or within safe limits recommended by the equipment manufacturer when used in conjunction with it.
Installation, inspection, maintenance, repair, and testing of ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be done only by persons qualified to do such work.
Proper storage shall be provided for slings while not in use.
Chains used in load carrying service shall be inspected before initial use and weekly thereafter.
Chain shall be normalized or annealed periodically as recommended by the manufacturer.
If at any time any 3-foot length of chain is found to have stretched one-third the length of a link it shall be discarded.
Bolts or nails shall not be placed between two links to shorten or join chains.
Broken chains shall not be spliced by inserting a bolt between two links with the head of the bolt and nut sustaining the load, or by passing one link through another and inserting a bolt or nail to hold it.
Wire rope or cable shall be inspected when installed and once each week thereafter, when in use. It shall be removed from hoisting or load-carrying service when kinked or when one of the following conditions exists:
When three broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 6 wire rope.
When six broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 19 wire rope.
When nine broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 37 wire rope.
When eight broken wires are found in one lay of 8 by 19 wire rope.
When marked corrosion appears.
Wire rope of a type not described herein shall be removed from service when 4 percent of the total number of wires composing such rope are found to be broken in one lay.
Wire rope removed from service due to defects shall be plainly marked or identified as being unfit for further use on cranes, hoists, and other load-carrying devices.
The ratio between the rope diameter and the drum, block, sheave, or pulley tread diameter shall be such that the rope will adjust itself to the bend without excessive wear, deformation, or injury. In no case shall the safe value of drums, blocks, sheaves, or pulleys be reduced when replacing such items unless compensating changes are made for rope used and for safe loading limits.
Drums, sheaves, and pulleys shall be smooth and free from surface defects liable to injure rope. Drums, sheaves, or pulleys having eccentric bores or cracked hubs, spokes, or flanges shall be removed from service.
Connections, fittings, fastenings, and other parts used in connection with ropes and cables shall be of good quality and of proper size and strength, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Socketing, splicing, and seizing of cables shall be performed only by qualified persons.
All eye splices shall be made in an approved manner and wire rope thimbles of proper size shall be fitted in the eye, except that in slings the use of thimbles shall be optional.
Wire rope clips attached with U-bolts shall have these bolts on the dead or short end of the rope. The U-bolt nuts shall be retightened immediately after initial load carrying use and at frequent intervals thereafter.
When a wedge socket-type fastening is used, the dead or short end of the cable shall be clipped with a U-bolt or otherwise made secure against loosening.
Hooks, shackles, rings, pad eyes, and other fittings that show excessive wear or that have been bent, twisted, or otherwise damaged shall be removed from service.
Running lines of hoisting equipment located within 6 feet 6 inches of the ground or working level shall be boxed off or otherwise guarded, or the operating area shall be restricted.
There shall be not less than two full wraps of hoisting cable on the drum of cranes and hoists at all times of operation.
Drums shall have a flange at each end to prevent the cable from slipping off.
Bottom sheaves shall be protected by close fitting guards to prevent cable from jumping the sheave.