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# 16.5 Brackets and Corbels

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Brackets and corbels with shear span-to-depth ratio

**and with factored horizontal tensile force***a*/_{v}*d*≤ 1.0**shall be permitted to be designed in accordance with 16.5.***N*≤_{uc}*V*_{u}Effective depth

**for a bracket or corbel shall be calculated at the face of the support.***d*Overall depth of bracket or corbel at the outside edge of the bearing area shall be at least

**0.5**.*d*No part of the bearing area on a bracket or corbel shall project farther from the face of support than (a) or (b):

(a) End of the straight portion of the primary tension reinforcement

(b) Interior face of the transverse anchor bar, if one is provided

For normalweight concrete, the bracket or corbel dimensions shall be selected such that

**shall not exceed the least of (a) through (c):***V*/ϕ_{u}(a) **0.2 f'_{c}b_{w}d**

(b) **(480 + 0.08 f'_{c})b_{w}d**

(c) **1600 b_{w}d**

For all-lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete, the bracket or corbel dimensions shall be selected such that

**shall not exceed the lesser of (a) and (b):***V*/ϕ_{u}(a)

(b)

The section at the face of the support shall be designed to resist simultaneously the factored shear

**, the factored horizontal tensile force***V*_{u}**, and the factored moment***N*_{uc}**given by [***M*_{u}**].***V*+_{u}a_{v}*N*(_{uc}*h*-*d*)Factored tensile force,

**, and shear,***N*_{uc}**, shall be the maximum values calculated in accordance with the factored load combinations in Chapter 5.***V*_{u}Required strength shall be calculated in accordance with the analysis procedures in Chapter 6, and the requirements in this section.

Horizontal tensile force acting on a bracket or corbel shall be treated as a live load when calculating

**, even if the tension results from restraint of creep, shrinkage, or temperature change.***N*_{uc}Unless tensile forces are prevented from being applied to the bracket or corbel,

**shall be at least***N*_{uc}**0.2**.*V*_{u}Design strength at all sections shall satisfy

**ϕ**, including (a) through (c). Interaction between load effects shall be considered.*S*≥_{n}*U*(a) **ϕ N_{n} ≥ N_{uc}**

(b) **ϕ V_{n} ≥ V_{u}**

(c) **ϕ M_{n} ≥ M_{u}**

ϕ shall be determined in accordance with 21.2.

Nominal tensile strength

**provided by***N*_{n}**shall be calculated by***A*_{n}N = _{n}A_{n}f_{y} | (16.5.4.3) |

Nominal shear strength

**provided by***V*_{n}**shall be calculated in accordance with provisions for shear-friction in 22.9, where***A*_{vf}**is the area of reinforcement that crosses the assumed shear plane.***A*_{vf}Nominal flexural strength

**provided by***M*_{n}**shall be calculated in accordance with the design assumptions in 22.2.***A*_{f}Area of primary tension reinforcement,

**, shall be at least the greatest of (a) through (c):***A*_{sc}(a) *A _{f}* +

*A*

_{n}(b) **(2/3) A_{vf} + A_{n}**

(c) **0.04( f'_{c}/f_{y})(b_{w}d)**

Total area of closed stirrups or ties parallel to primary tension reinforcement,

**, shall be at least:***A*_{h}A = 0.5(_{h}A— _{sc}A)_{n} | (16.5.5.2) |

At the front face of a bracket or corbel, primary tension reinforcement shall be anchored by (a), (b), or (c):

(a) A weld to a transverse bar of at least equal size that is designed to develop ** f_{y}** of primary tension reinforcement

(b) Bending the primary tension reinforcement back to form a horizontal loop

(c) Other means of anchorage that develops *f _{y}*

Primary tension reinforcement shall be developed at the face of the support.

Development of tension reinforcement shall account for distribution of stress in reinforcement that is not directly proportional to the bending moment.

Closed stirrups or ties shall be spaced such that

**is uniformly distributed within***A*_{h}**(2/3)**measured from the primary tension reinforcement.*d*### Related Code Sections

16.5 Connections Between Members, Brackets and Corbels

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