// CODE SNIPPET
66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas
JUMP TO FULL CODE CHAPTER
For the purpose of this section, the following terms shall have the definitions given. [30:16.2]
A metal container, a metal intermediate bulk container, or a metal portable tank that is equipped with at least one pressure-relieving mechanism at its top that is designed, sized, and arranged to relieve the internal pressure generated due to exposure to fire so that violent rupture is prevented. [30:16.2.4]
A liquid that gels, thickens, or solidifies when heated or whose viscosity at room temperature versus weight percent content of Class I, Class II, or Class III liquid is in the shaded portion of Figure 18.104.22.168. [30:16.2.6]
A liquid that mixes in all proportions with water without the use of chemical additives, such as emulsifying agents. [30:16.2.7]
Where different classes of liquids, container types, and storage configurations are stored in the same protected area, protection shall meet either of the following:
- Requirements of this section for the most severe storage fire hazard present
- Where areas are not physically separated by a barrier or partition capable of delaying heat from a fire in one hazard area from fusing sprinklers in an adjacent hazard area, the required protection for the more demanding hazard shall:
Viscous liquids, as defined in 22.214.171.124, shall be permitted to be protected using either of the following, as applicable:
- For metal containers, the criteria for a Class IIIB liquid in accordance with Figure 126.96.36.199(a)
- For nonmetallic containers, the criteria for Class IIIB liquids, as determined by Figure 188.8.131.52(b)
- For nonmetallic containers, the criteria for cartoned unexpanded Group A plastics in accordance with NFPA 13 as indicated in Figure 184.108.40.206(b).
Protection systems that are designed and developed based on full-scale fire tests performed at an approved test facility or on other engineered protection schemes shall be considered an acceptable alternative to the protection criteria set forth in this section. Such alternative protection systems shall be approved by the AHJ. [30:16.3.5]
For relieving-style containers of greater than 6.6 gal (25 L) and up to 119 gal (450 L) capacity, the following shall apply:
- The pressure-relieving mechanism shall be listed and labeled in accordance with FM Global Approval Standard for Plastic Plugs for Steel Drums, Class Number 6083, or equivalent.
- The pressure-relieving mechanism shall not be painted, and cap seals, if used, shall be made of thermoplastic material.
- For metal containers greater than 6.6 gal (25 L) capacity, the pressure-relieving mechanism shall be unobstructed or an additional pressure-relieving mechanism shall be provided.
To be considered protected by Table 220.127.116.11.9 and Table 18.104.22.168.10, rigid nonmetallic intermediate bulk containers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2368, Standard for Fire Exposure Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers for Flammable and Combustible Liquids; FM Class 6020, Approval Standard for Intermediate Bulk Containers; or an equivalent test procedure. [30:16.3.7]
Where automatic sprinkler systems or low-expansion foam-water sprinkler systems are used to protect storage of liquids, Figure 22.214.171.124(a), Figure 126.96.36.199(b), or Figure 188.8.131.52(c), whichever is applicable, and the appropriate table in 66.16.5 shall be used to determine protection criteria. [30:16.4.1]
Note: All cross-references refer to NFPA 30.
Note: For SI units, 1 gal = 3.8 L.
Note: All cross-references refer to NFPA 30.
Subsections 184.108.40.206.1 through 220.127.116.11.12 and their related tables, Table 18.104.22.168.1 through Table 22.214.171.124.12, shall be used to determine the protection criteria and storage arrangement for the applicable liquid class, container type, and storage configuration, as described in 126.96.36.199.1 through 188.8.131.52.12 and subject to the provisions of 184.108.40.206. [30:16.5.1]
When foam or foam-water fire protection systems are provided, discharge densities shall be determined based on the listing criteria of the foam discharge devices selected, the foam concentrate, the specific liquids to be protected, and the criteria in the appropriate table in this section. Where the discharge densities given in the tables differ from those in the listing criteria for the discharge devices, the greater of the two shall be used. [30:220.127.116.11]
In-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 13.3 and NFPA 13. In addition, the following modifications shall apply:
- In-rack sprinklers shall be laid out in accordance with 18.104.22.168.10 and 66.16.6, as applicable.
- Sprinklers in multiple-level in-rack sprinkler systems shall be provided with water shields unless they are separated by horizontal barriers or are specifically listed for installation without water shields.
- A vertical clear space of at least 6 in. (150 mm) shall be maintained between the sprinkler deflector and the top of the tier of storage.
- Sprinkler discharge shall not be obstructed by horizontal rack structural members.
- Where in-rack sprinklers are installed below horizontal barriers, the deflector shall be located a maximum of 7 in. (180 mm) below the barrier.
- Longitudinal and transverse flue spaces of at least 6 in. (150 mm) shall be maintained between each rack load.
Ordinary or intermediate temperature-rated K-25 extended-coverage sprinklers shall be permitted to be used as standard response high temperature sprinklers at greater than 144 ft2 (13 m2) coverage, with 12 ft (3.7 m) minimum spacing and a maximum coverage area of 196 ft2 (18 m2) coverage. [30:22.214.171.124.1]
Foam-water sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 16. [30:126.96.36.199]
Foam-water sprinkler systems shall have at least 15 minutes of foam concentrate, based on the required design flow rate. [30:188.8.131.52.1]
Foam-water sprinkler systems shall provide foam solution at the minimum required concentration with as few as four sprinklers flowing. [30:184.108.40.206.2]
For the purposes of 66.16.5, a rigid nonmetallic intermediate bulk container is one that meets the maximum allowable capacity criteria of Table 220.127.116.11 and has been listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2368, Standard for Fire Exposure Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, or equivalent. [30:18.104.22.168]
For the purposes of 66.16.5, the following shall apply:
- 1 gal = 3.8 L; 1 ft = 0.3 m; 1 ft2 = 0.09 m2
- 1 gpm/ft2 is equivalent to 40.7 L/min/m2 or 40.7 mm/min
- A gauge pressure of 1 psi is equivalent to a gauge pressure of 6.9 kPa
- SR = standard response sprinkler; QR = quick response sprinkler; ESFR = early suppression fast response sprinkler; OT = ordinary temperature; HT = high temperature
- Where an ordinary-temperature sprinkler is indicated, an intermediate-temperature sprinkler shall be used where ambient conditions require.
Related Code Sections
66.16 Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas
This section shall apply to automatic fire protection systems for all inside storage of flammable and combustible liquids in containers, intermediate ...
Fire Code 2018 of West Virginia > 66 Flammable and Combustible Liquids > 66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas
66.16.4 Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Automatic Sprinkler and Foam-Water Sprinkler Fire Protection Systems
Where automatic sprinkler systems or low-expansion foam-water sprinkler systems are used to protect storage of liquids, Figure 22.214.171.124(a), Figure ...
Fire Code 2018 of West Virginia > 66 Flammable and Combustible Liquids > 66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas > 66.16.4 Automatic Sprinkler and Foam-Water Sprinkler Fire Protection Systems
66.16.8 Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Containment, Drainage, and Spill Control
with the provisions of this section. [ 30: 16.8.1] FIGURE 126.96.36.199 Spill Containment and Liquid Spread Control for Protected Storage. [30:Figure ...
Fire Code 2018 of West Virginia > 66 Flammable and Combustible Liquids > 66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas > 66.16.8 Containment, Drainage, and Spill Control
66.16.7 Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Water Supply
Water supplies for automatic sprinklers, other water-based protection systems, hose streams, and hydrants shall be capable of supplying ...
Fire Code 2018 of West Virginia > 66 Flammable and Combustible Liquids > 66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas > 66.16.7 Water Supply
66.16.2 Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Definitions Specific to Section 66.16
, this term shall apply to the storage of containers that do not meet the criteria to be considered protected, as defined in 188.8.131.52. [ 30: 16.2.3 ...
Fire Code 2018 of West Virginia > 66 Flammable and Combustible Liquids > 66.16 Automatic Fire Protection for Inside Liquid Storage Areas > 66.16.2 Definitions Specific to Section 66.16