The objective of the audit is to review structural, mechanical and electrical systems on a prescribed periodic basis to verify that each berthing system is fit for its specific defined purpose. The audit includes above water and underwater inspections, engineering evaluation, documentation and recommended follow-up actions.
The audit shall include above water and underwater inspections, and structural, electrical and mechanical systems evaluations, with supporting documentation, drawings and follow-up actions. Structural systems shall include seismic, operational, mooring, berthing and geotechnical considerations. Mechanical systems shall include fire, piping/pipelines and mechanical equipment considerations. The audit is performed by a multidisciplinary team of engineers, qualified inspectors and may include Division representatives.
The above water inspection involves an examination of all structural, mechanical and electrical components above the waterline. Structural defects and their severity shall be documented, but the exact size and location of each deficiency is typically not required.
The underwater inspection involves an examination of all structural, mechanical and electrical components below the waterline. A rational and representative underwater sampling of piles may be acceptable with Division approval, for cases of limited visibility, heavy marine growth, restricted inspection times because of environmental factors (currents, water temperatures, etc.) or a very large number of piles.
Global operational structural assessment rating(s) (OSAR), global seismic structural assessment rating(s) (SSAR) and global inspection condition assessment rating(s) (ICAR) shall be assigned to each structure and overall berthing system, where appropriate (Table 31F-2-4).
Remedial action priorities (RAP) shall be assigned for component deficiencies (Table 31F-2-5). Recommendations for remediation and/or upgrading shall be prescribed as necessary.
An audit is not considered complete until the audit report is received by the Division.
|REMEDIAL PRIORITIES||DESCRIPTION AND REMEDIAL ACTIONS|
Specified whenever a condition that poses an immediate threat to public health, safety or the environment is observed. Emergency Actions may consist of barricading or closing all or portions of the berthing system, evacuating product lines and ceasing transfer operations.
The berthing system is not fit-for-purpose.Immediate remedial actions are required prior to the continuance of normal operations.
Specified whenever defects or deficiencies pose a potential threat to public health, safety and the environment. Actions may consist of limiting or restricting operations until remedial measures have been completed.
The berthing system is not fit-for-purpose. This priority requires investigation, evaluation and urgent action.
Specified whenever systems require upgrading in order to comply with the requirement of these standards or current applicable codes. These deficiencies do not require emergency or urgent actions.
The MOT may have limitations placed on its operational status.
Specified whenever damage or defects requiring repair are observed.
Recommended action is a good engineering/maintenance practice, but not required by these standards.
The berthing system is fit-for-purpose.
For a new MOT or new berthing system(s), the initial audit of the "as-built" systems(s) shall be performed prior to commencement of operations.
A subsequent audit of each terminal shall be completed concurrently with the inspections (see Section 3102F.3.5). The audit team leader shall recommend either: (1) a default subsequent audit interval of 4 years, or (2) an alternate interval, based on assessments of the structural, mechanical and electrical systems, and consideration of:
- The extent of the latest deterioration and/or disrepair,
- The rate of future anticipated deterioration and/or disrepair,
- The underwater inspection guidance provided in Table 31F-2-1, and
- Other specified factors.
Based on independent assessment of these factors, the Division may accept the audit team leader's recommendation or require a different subsequent audit interval.
If there are no changes in the defined purpose (see Section 3102F.3.6.1) of the berthing system(s), relevant prior analyses may be referenced. However, if there is a significant change in the operations or condition of berthing system(s), a new analysis may be required.
The Division may require an audit, inspection or supplemental evaluations to justify changes in the use of the berthing system(s).
The audit shall be conducted by a multidisciplinary team under the direction of a project manager representing the MOT. The project manager shall have specific knowledge of the MOT and may serve other roles on the audit team.
The audit team leader shall lead the on-site audit team and shall be responsible for directing field activities, including the inspection of all structural, mechanical and electrical systems. The team leader shall be a California registered civil or structural engineer and may serve other roles on the audit team.
The structural inspection shall be conducted under the direction of a registered civil or structural engineer.
All members of the structural inspection team shall be graduates of a 4-year civil/structural engineering, or closely related (ocean/coastal) engineering curriculum, and shall have been certified as an Engineer-in-Training; or shall be technicians who have completed a course of study in structural inspections. The minimum acceptable course in structural inspections shall include 80 hours of instruction specifically related to structural inspection, followed by successful completion of a comprehensive examination. An example of an acceptable course is the U.S. Department of Transportation's "Safety Inspection of In-Service Bridges." Certification as a Level IV Bridge Inspector by the National Institute of Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET) shall also be acceptable [2.2].
For underwater inspections, the registered civil or structural engineer directing the underwater structural inspection shall also be a commercially trained diver or equivalent and shall actively participate in the inspection, by personally conducting a minimum of 25 percent of the underwater examination [2.2].
Each underwater team member shall also be a commercially trained diver, or equivalent. Divers performing manual tasks such as cleaning or supporting the diving operation, but not conducting or reporting on inspections, may have lesser technical qualifications [2.2].
A California registered civil or structural engineer shall be in responsible charge of the structural evaluations.
A registered electrical engineer shall direct the on-site team performing the inspection and evaluation of electrical components and systems.
The corrosion specialist shall be a chemical engineer, corrosion engineer, chemist or other professional with expertise in the types and causes of corrosion, and available means to prevent, monitor and mitigate associated damage. The specialist shall perform the corrosion assessment (Section 3102F.3.6.5) and may be directly involved in corrosion inspection (Section 3102F.3.5.4).
A California registered civil engineer with a California authorization as a geotechnical engineer shall perform the geotechnical evaluation required for the audit and all other geotechnical evaluations.
The Division representative(s) may participate in any audit or inspection as observer(s). The Division shall be notified in advance of audit-related inspections.
The above water inspection shall include all accessible components above and below deck that are reachable without the need for excavation or extensive removal of materials that may impair visual inspection. The above water inspection shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Pile caps
- Deck soffit
- Retaining walls and bulkheads
- Slope protection
- Deck topsides and curbing
- Expansion joints
- Fender system components
- Dolphins and deadmen
- Mooring points and hardware
- Navigation aids
- Platforms, ladders, stairs, handrails and gangways
- Backfill (sinkholes/differential settlement)
The underwater inspection shall include all components below deck to the mudline, including the slope and slope protection, in areas immediately surrounding the MOT. The water depth at the berth(s) shall be evaluated, verifying the maximum or loaded draft specified in the MOT's Operations Manual (2 CCR 2385) [2.1].
The underwater structural inspection shall include the Level I, II and III inspection efforts, as shown in Tables 31F-2-2 and 31F-2-3. The underwater inspection levels of effort are described below, per [2.2]:
Level I—Includes a close visual examination, or a tactile examination using large sweeping motions of the hands where visibility is limited. Although the Level I effort is often referred to as a "swim-by" inspection, it must be detailed enough to detect obvious major damage or deterioration due to overstress or other severe deterioration. It should confirm the continuity of the full length of all members and detect undermining or exposure of normally buried elements. A Level I effort may also include limited probing of the substructure and adjacent channel bottom.
Level II—A detailed inspection which requires marine growth removal from a representative sampling of components within the structure. For piles, a 12-inch high band shall be cleaned at designated locations, generally near the low waterline, at the mudline, and midway between the low waterline and the mudline. On a rectangular pile, the marine growth removal should include at least three sides; on an octagon pile, at least six sides; on a round pile, at least three-fourths of the perimeter. On large diameter piles, 3 ft or greater, marine growth removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at four locations approximately equally spaced around the perimeter, at each elevation. On large solid faced elements such as retaining structures, marine growth removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at the three specified elevations. The inspection should also focus on typical areas of weakness, such as attachment points and welds. The Level II effort is intended to detect and identify damaged and deteriorated areas that may be hidden by surface biofouling. The thoroughness of marine growth removal should be governed by what is necessary to discern the condition of the underlying structural material. Removal of all biofouling staining is generally not required.
Level III—A detailed inspection typically involving nondestructive or partially-destructive testing, conducted to detect hidden or interior damage, or to evaluate material homogeneity. Level III testing is generally limited to key structural areas, areas which are suspect or areas which may be representative of the underwater structure.
|I||General visual/tactile inspection to confirm as-built condition and detect severe damage||Extensive corrosion, holes Severe mechanical damage||Major spalling and cracking Severe reinforcement corrosion Broken piles||Major loss of section Broken piles and bracings Severe abrasion or marine borer attack||Permanent deformation Broken piles Major cracking or mechanical damage|
|II||To detect surface defects normally obscured by marine growth||Moderate mechanical damage Corrosion pitting and loss of section||Surface cracking and spalling Rust staining Exposed reinforcing steel and/or prestressing strands||External pile damage due to marine borers Splintered piles Loss of bolts and fasteners Rot or insect infestation||Cracking Delamination Material degradation|
|III||To detect hidden or interior damage, evaluate loss of cross-sectional area, or evaluate material homogeneity||Thickness of material Electrical potentials for cathodic protection||Location of reinforcing steel Beginning of corrosion of reinforcing steel Internal voids Change in material strength||Internal damage due to marine borers (internal voids) Decrease in material strength||N/A|
|LEVEL||SAMPLE SIZE AND METHODOLOGY1|
|Steel||Concrete||Timber||Composite||Slope Protection, Channel Bottom or Mudline-Scour|
|Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles||Bulkheads/Retaining Walls||Piles|
|II||Sample Size:||10%||Every 100 LF||10%||Every 100 LF||10%||Every 50 LF||10%||As necessary|
|Method:||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth on 3 bands Measurement: Remaining diameter||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 1 SF areas||Visual: Removal of marine growth in 3 bands|
|III||Sample Size:||5%||Every 200 LF||0%||0%||5%||Every 100 LF||0%||Sonar imaging as necessary|
|Method:||Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurement; corrosion profiling as necessary||Remaining thickness measurement; electrical potential measurement; corrosion profiling as necessary||N/A||N/A||Internal marine borer infestation evaluation||Internal marine borer infestation evaluation|
- The minimum inspection sampling size for small structures shall include at least two components.
LF = Linear Feet; SF = Square Feet; N/A = Not Applicable
For coated steel components, Level I and Level II efforts should focus on the evaluation of the integrity and effectiveness of the coating. The piles should be inspected without damaging the coating. Level III efforts should include ultrasonic thickness measurements without removal of the coating, where feasible.
For steel, concrete or timber components that have been encased, the Level I and II efforts should focus on the evaluation of the integrity of the encasement. If evidence of significant damage to the encasement is present, or if evidence of significant deterioration of the underlying component is present, then the damage evaluation should consider whether the encasement was provided for protection and/or structural capacity. Encasements should not typically be removed for an audit.
For encasements on which the formwork has been left in place, the inspection should focus on the integrity of the encasement, not the formwork. Level I and Level II efforts in such cases should concentrate on the top and bottom of the encasement. For concrete components, if deterioration, loss of bonding, or other significant problems with the encasement are suspected, it may be necessary to conduct a special inspection, including coring of the encasement and laboratory evaluation of the materials.